The Age Of Alexander Essay

2201 words - 9 pages

The Age of Alexander

The conquests of Alexander the Great spread Hellenism immediately over the Middle East and far into Asia. After his death in 323 B.C., the influence of Greek civilization continued to expand over the Mediterranean world and W Asia. The wars of the Diadochi marked, it is true, the breakup of Alexander's brief empire, but the establishment of Macedonian dynasties in Egypt, Syria, and Persia (the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae) helped to mold the world of that day into a wider unity of trade and learning.

The Hellenistic period was an international, cosmopolitan age. Commercial contacts were widespread and peoples of many ethnic and religious backgrounds merged in populous urban centers. Advances were made in various fields of scientific inquiry, including engineering, physics, astronomy and mathematics. Great libraries were founded in Alexandria, Athens and the independent kingdom of Pergamum. The old beliefs in Olympian gods were infused with foreign elements, especially from the east; "Oriental" ecstatic cults, such as those of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, become popular in the Hellenized world.

The 3rd century BC saw the rise of ancient Rome. After securing most of the Italic peninsula, Rome entered into a protracted conflict with the Carthaginians for control of Sicily, Spain and the other regions of Punic domination in the Punic Wars. The former empire of Alexander was taken steadily and methodically into Roman hands. The great city of Corinth was destroyed (146 BC), Athens captured (86 BC), and Cleopatra and Mark Antony defeated at the Battle of Actium (31 BC). Their defeat marks the end of the Hellenistic Age.

Cities

While the city-states of Greece itself tended to stagnate, elsewhere cities and states grew and flourished. Of these the chief was Alexandria. So great a force did Alexandria exert in commerce, letters, and art that this period is occasionally called the Alexandrian Age, and the end of Hellenistic civilization is generally set at the final triumph of Roman power in Alexandria in the 1st cent. B.C. Pergamum was also prominent, and there were other cities of influence (e.g., Dura).

In the Hellenistic period, although the cities were no longer independent, as they had been in the Hellenic era, they were the centers of trade and craft industry. It was in the cities that the descendants of the Greco-Macedonian conquerors became a professional class of rulers and soldiers and merchants, which provided a cultural and economic bond throughout the area, even though political unity did not survive the death of Alexander. Among the Greek ruling class, the old loyalties to the Polis had given way to a dedication to the profession. As the administrators and the merchants of their world, in spite of being in the minority, they had an influence out of proportion to their numbers. The city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander, located on the Mediterranean at the mouth of the Nile, became the most prominent...

Find Another Essay On The Age of Alexander

Alexander the Great - The battle of Hydapes

1300 words - 5 pages History Essay Account for the success of one of the following battles and explain the reasons for Alexander's success? Many elements lead to Alexander's success in the battle of Hydapes. Tactics and Commanders are the crucial points of the success of the battle. The Porus' army (enemy of Alexander) outnumbered Alexander's army. However, the brilliant tactics used by Alexander was the turning point of the battle. Moreover, the weapons and amour

The Age Of Reason Essay

2437 words - 10 pages . It was the first time when literacy and a library were all that stood between a person and education. The first half of the century has often been aptly described as the Age of Reason, the Augustan Age and the Neo-classical Age. The very description of this period as Augustan throws light on the prosperity and growth of this period, drawing a direct parallel to the affluent era of Latin literature during the reign of Augustus and in the process

The Age of Enlightenment

649 words - 3 pages systems of natural philosophy. Such luminaries as Alexander Pope, Phyllis Wheatley, Voltaire and Jonathan Swift among others were at the forefront of this paradigm change in socio-cultural expression. A special mention has to be made on the role of the Novel in this epoch making age. The broad scope of intellectual discourse offered by the Novel was utilized very cleverly and ingenuously by such writers as Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richarrdson, Henry

The Age of Dryden

3023 words - 12 pages In the history of English literature the period dating from 1660 to 1700 is called the Age of Dryden. Also called the Restoration Period, this was an era of change in political and social as well as in literary fields. In politics the period saw the reign of three rulers, two dynasties and a revolution. The social life of this period was influenced much by the French manners. The life of the people of England was greatly affected by the Great

The Age of Enlightenment

716 words - 3 pages , soaring to the domination of man's happiness through freedom. It would affect science, religion and social thinking of society. As a result of society's renewed sence of self awareness, religious art dwindled and art as social commentary flourished (Tacket.)The age of Enlightenment began after the death of Louis the XIV, in the early 18th century, and ended roughly around the time of the coup d'etat of the Royal French Army in 1799, and the

The Age Of Consent

538 words - 2 pages minors a degree of independence in the decision-making process it maintains many grey areas. The age of consent is inconsistent across provinces and territories, and the guidelines used to assess competence are vague and sometimes arbitrary. With such inconsistency in the measuring of adolescent competence, it brings me to question the competence granted freely to adults. To rightfully judge competence there must be a prototype, something that I

The Age of Innocence

1465 words - 6 pages determinism, Americans were not as “free” as they believed. The Age of Innocence presents a representation of the constant social trap that forced people to mask their true feelings because of the ever-imposing desire to always seem at their best. One of the main subjects of the story is the lack of morality in Old New York. The city is renown for its “rigidities about form, family, and financial problems” and is the “epitome of rectitude” (Kozloff

The Age of Exploration

1084 words - 4 pages The desire to explore the unknown has been a driving force in human history since the dawn of time. From the earliest documented accounts, ancient civilizations have explored the world around them. Early adventures were motivated by religious beliefs, a desire for conquest, the need for trade, and an unsatisfying hunger for gold. The great Age of Exploration, beginning in the late 1400s, was an important era in the discovery and development of

The Age Of Innosence

1575 words - 6 pages Research Paper- The Age of Innocence Throughout the novel, The Age of Innocence, there is one character that is able to affect many of the others in the story without really affecting herself. It is Ellen Olenska- the outsider who catalyzes so many emotions- who brings these submerged feelings to the surface. Ellen, not knowingly, has affected nearly all the characters in this novel in one way or another. She has swayed people's opinions

The Age of Beauty

1158 words - 5 pages . Girls are presented with beauty sets that turn them into 80's throwbacks. Younger and younger girls try to make themselves up, building foundation for future skin problems. You can buy t-shirts for toddlers with nipple tassles applique. Girls as young as 4 years of age can totter around in baby stilettos8. One of the most recent models of Barbie doll include a special action – augmenting the breasts of the doll by using a clockwork mechanism

The Age of Imperialism

1814 words - 8 pages that language was easily learned at a young age. The sanitation and overall public health also improved. The warfare and bandits were put to an end when the British troops came. Asia was also a place of high interest for colonization. Asia's imperialism had many different positives. This included the rise in the economy. The economy had grown because of the cash crops and raw materials available. The raw materials were tin and rubber. Roads

Similar Essays

The Life Of Jane Alexander Essay

1183 words - 5 pages Jane Alexander was born in Johannesburg in 1959. From a very young age she started showing great artistic talent, and is now one of South Africa's most acknowledged sculptors. She studied at the University of Witwatersrand and obtained a Bachelor of Arts in Fine Art degree in 1982. That same year, she was the winner of the National Fine Arts Student Competition as well as the Martienssen Student Prize. In 1988 she completed her Masters in Fine

The Conquests Of Alexander The Great

2866 words - 11 pages were equipped with a twelve-foot lance called the xyston. At the time, no army was as well organized or as technologically advanced. With Alexander's devotion and valor, he would lead these armies and create the largest empire of his time.Even at a young age Alexander demonstrated his fearless character. At the age of twelve, he tamed the wild Bucephalus, an infamous horse that no one else could ride. Philip was greatly amazed by Alexander's

The Death Of Alexander The Great

9924 words - 40 pages gain favor of the army as to seize power. One the sixth day of his illness, Alexander gave his ring to Perdiccas, causing much dissension among his friends, according to Justin. This version of events appears no where else in the secondary sources. Justin also gives a somewhat strange detail--he says Alexander died at the age of 33 and one month, another deviation from all accepted sources. Justin's reliability and overall credibility as a

The Life & Times Of Alexander The Great

1517 words - 6 pages , whowon Alexander's heart at anearly age by playing imagination games with Alexander and his playmates: Ptolemy, Harpalos,Nearchos, Hephaistion, andErigyios.When Alexander reached the ripe old age of thirteen, Philip decided it was time forAlexander to receive a highereducation better befitting his young heir. Searching throughout his empire, Philip was luckyenough to find a student of Platowho was at the time unemployed, a young genius named