The Objective of Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management(TQM) is an organisational process that actively
involves every function and every employee in satisfying customers needs, both
internal and external. TQM works by continuously improving all aspect of work
through structured control, improvement and planning activities that are carried
out in concern with guiding ideology that focuses on Quality and Customer
Satisfaction as the top priorities.
There has been many arguments that TQM succeeds only by incorporating a
concern about quality for the customers throughout the organisation. The truth
of this statement and those facts that disagree with this statement will be look
into and discuss in more detail to achieve the success of TQM.
TQM recognises that the Customer is at the center of every activity. The
customer may be external or internal. The key is to determine the gap between
what the customer needs and what the system delivers. Once the gap is
recognised, it would be systematically reduced and results in never-ending
improvement in customer satisfaction at every level.
TQM depends on and creates a culture in an organisation which involves
everybody in quality improvement. Everyone in the company can affect quality but
must first realise this factor and have the techniques and tools which are
appropriate for improving quality. Thus TQM includes the marketing and
dissemination of quality and methods not only within the organisation and
customers but also to suppliers and other partners.
The general view to achieve success in TQM could be summarised as below:
Quality as strength
Quality in all processes
The importance of management
The involvement, commitment and responsibility of everybody
Focus on prevention rather than inspection
Meeting the needs of target customers
A prerequisite for successful quality improvement is first, to understand how
quality is perceived and valued by customers.
Design Quality Technical Quality
Customer Perceived Quality
Figure 1: Gronroos - Gummesson Quality Model (1987)
Gronroos and Gummesson has combined their ‘Customer Perceived Quality'
model and the 4 “Q” model to stress the importance of customer. The intergrated
model focuses solely for the organisation to achieve customer satisfaction
through improving the quality for the customers.
Morup (1992) notes that “quality is the most important and effective factor
a company can use in the battle for customers.” To be competitive, we must
satisfy the customers. In order to be more competitive, we must delight the