The aims of internal marketing:
Many commentators and marketing theorists have over the years been trying to provide a precise definition of the concept of internal marketing. Their efforts in doing so proved to be unsuccessful due to the development of different schools of thoughts with different opinions as to what constitutes internal marketing. Be that as it may; Wilson et al (2008, p.280); Describe internal marketing as; “A complex combination of strategies needed to ensure that service employees are willing and able to deliver quality services and that they stay motivated to perform in customer orientated, service minded ways.” They go on to suggest that; “By approaching human resource decisions and strategies from the point of view that the primary goal is to motivate and enable employees to deliver successfully customer-orientated promises, an organization will move towards delivering service quality through its people.” This point is also backed up by Grönroos when discussing the topic who points out that internal marketing should be concerned with; “Understanding the employees role in the total relationship with a customer and of each and everyone’s role and tasks in maintaining and enhancing this relationship.” (Grönroos, 2007, p.396).
Employee as customer
Berry first came up with the concept of treating employees as internal customers in the early 1980’s. He viewed jobs as internal products and used marketing techniques to improve these products. “Applying the philosophy and practice of marketing to people who serve external customers so that the best possible people can be employed and retained and that they will do the best possible work.” (Berry, 1980). This theory was based on the notion that in order to have satisfied customers, the organisation must also have satisfied employees. Employees were essentially viewed as internal customers, while jobs were viewed as internal products. (Berry, 1981). Drawing upon Berry, Grönroos takes the argument a step further and argues that a “service must be successfully marketed to the personnel so that the employees accept the service offering and thoroughly engage in performing their marketing duties.” Grönroos understood that in order to be able to successfully market a service to the personnel and for them to respond well to management requests, employees must be happy with the internal products; which make up their job and working environment. (Grönroos, 1985).
The development of internal marketing since its initial concept has lead many authors to discuss the link between meeting internal customer needs meeting the service delivery of external customers. If internal service is poor, the service provided externally will be affected. It can be difficult for people involved in internal service function supporting other departments to realise the importance of their final service. They often never interact with or see real customers, and can easily feel that those whom...