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The Anatomy And Physiology Of Respiratory System And The Diagnosis Of Asthma

1287 words - 5 pages

Respiration consists mainly of two processes.Respiration Internal or cellular respiration is the process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidized to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide. External respiration (breathing) involves simply the stage of taking oxygen from the air and returning carbon dioxide to it. “Anatomy and Functions of Respiratory System and its Components” The respiratory tract, where external respiration occurs, starts at the nose and mouth. The trachea (windpipe) extends from the neck into the thorax, where it divides into right and left main bronchi, which enter the right and left lungs, breaking up as they do so into smaller bronchi and bronchioles and ending in small air sacs or alveoli, where gaseous exchange occurs.The lungs are divided first into right and left, the left being smaller to accommodate the heart, then into lobes (three on the right, two on the left) supplied by lobar bronchi. Bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins (which supply deoxygenated blood and remove oxygenated blood), bronchial arteries and veins (which supply oxygenated blood to the substance of the lung itself) and lymphatics all enter and leave the lung by its root (or hilum). Lymph nodes blackened by soot particles can often be seen here and the substance of the lung itself may be blackened by soot in city dwellers or heavy smokers. Each lobe of the lung is further divided into a pyramidal bronchopulmonary segments. Bronchopulmonary segments have the apex of the pyramid in the hilum whence they receive a tertiary bronchus, and appropriate blood vessels Gaseous exchange relies on simple diffusion. In order to provide sufficient oxygen and to get rid of sufficient carbon dioxide there must be A large surface area for gaseous exchange A very short diffusion path between alveolar air and blood Concentration gradients for oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar air and blood. Hemoglobin in blood continually removes dissolved oxygen from the blood and binds with it. Temperature and humidity of inspired air will increase as it passes down a long series of tubes lined with a moist mucosa at body temperature. The mechanisms for filtering are not so obvious. Mucus The respiratory tract, from nasal cavities to the smallest bronchi, is lined by a layer of sticky mucus, secreted by the epithelium assisted by small-ducted glands. Particles that hit the sidewall of the tract are trapped in this mucus. Cilia Once the particles have been sidelined by the mucus they have to be removed, as indeed does the mucous. This is carried out by cilia on the epithelial cells, which move the mucous continually up or down the tract towards the nose and mouth. The length of the respiratory tract helps in both bringing the air to the right temperature and humidity. Protection The entry of food and drink into the larynx is prevented by the structure of the larynx and by the...

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