A lie is a false statement with the purposely intentions to deceive, a falsehood or falsification. Since the beginning of time when Adam and Eve were created by god, and Adams fibbed about eating the apple, lying and deception has been the consistent future of human behavior or sin. The history of the polygraph has a similar long history with the reliable means of detecting deception. Researchers believed that this type of work must be viewed with care and cautiously being that the ones who tell the lies know that they are undergoing research and likewise know they do not comparatively behave as they would in real-life settings. There has been numerous of studies that attempt to identify specific verbal and nonverbal behaviors associated with lying. The polygraph does not detect a lie; it detects respiration and cardiovascular activity. The assumption is that liars will become more nervous that one who tells the truth. In the attempt to deceit the test through unconscious actions, many different behaviors have been associated with liars deception, including gazing aversion, the increase or decrease in movement, the amount of pauses or hesitations, slow of the speech rate, and speech errors.
The polygraph became a valuable tools used by the different varieties of law enforcement agencies as either investigative information for evidence. By the same token, used as a hiring process in the different departments. It is used to determine the truthfulness of suspects, witness, victims, informants, and in employees. Yet there is question on the accuracy of the results when they are turned out to be not as expected, and whether or not it should be used in the process of employment. This paper will explore and discuss the art of utilizing psychology to forensically and scientifically determine a person’s truthfulness and faithfulness in such criminal cases.
In 1878, Italian physiologist Angelo Mosso, became the first truth seeker thought the aid of science. Mosso had used an instrument he called a plethysmograph. He researched emotions and fears undergoing a series of questions. He studied the effects of those variables through their cardiovascular and respiratory activities as well as the human blood circulation, breathing patterns, and how they changed under certain stimuli.
The first use of a scientific instrument that was designed to measure the physiological responses to detect deception came about in 1895 by an Italian physician, Cesare Lombroso, who was also a psychiatrist and pioneer criminologist. Lombroso had modified Mosso’s existing instrument in which he called a hydrosphygmograph. The use of this modified device was to measure the physiological changes in occurrence with the crime suspect’s blood pressure and pulse rate through police interrogation. Lombroso was recorded of being one of the first persons to have successfully used the instrument for the means of distinguishing the truthfulness from deception in crime suspects to...