This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Application Of Model Predictive Control (Mpc) To Fast Systems Like Autonomous Ground Vehicles (Agv)

2288 words - 9 pages

Car-like Vehicle Models
A car-like vehicle resembles completely an automobile. It consists of four wheels for locomotion and is capable of being steered from one place to another. Car-like vehicles model can be classified as rear-wheel, front-wheel and four-wheel driving ground vehicles.

For a rear wheel drive vehicle, the rear tires handle the engine dynamics while the front only needs to handle the steering forces. Figure 2, depicts the vehicle model schematic for a rear drive vehicle. The states of the model are x = [x y 〖 ]〗^T , where (x; y) are the centre point coordinates of the rear axle,  is the heading angle of the car body with respect to the x-axis. In figure 2, the angle  is the steering angle of the front wheels, and can be referred as a control input. The distance between the front and the rear axles is represented by l. The following mathematical model describes the kinematic relationship of the rear-wheel drive ground vehicle: [1]
x ̇= v cos 
y ̇ = v sin  (1)
 ̇ = v (tan φ )/l
Or, in compact representation, x ̇ = f(x,u); (2)
The steering angle  and line velocity v are used as a control input, i.e. u = [  v〖 ]〗^T.

Bicycle Model
A bicycle model can be used to represent a four wheel vehicle; any vehicle model can be described as a bicycle model [10]. In a bicycle model, the two front wheels are lumped into one wheel and the two back wheels are also lumped into one. For the bicycle model, the complete form of the dynamic model of the vehicle is given by [11];

β ̇=(2C_f)/(mv_x ) [δ_f-β-(l_f ( ) ̇)/v_x ]+(2C_r)/(mv_x ) [-β+(l_r ( ) ̇)/v_x ]-( ) ̇
( ) ̇=( ) ̇
( ) ̈=(2l_f C_f)/I_z [δ_f-β-(l_f ( ) ̇)/v_x ]-(2C_r l_r)/I_z [-β+(l_r ( ) ̇)/v_x ]
X ̇=v_x cos⁡()-v_x tan(β)sin⁡()
Y ̇=v_x sin⁡()-v_x tan(β)cos⁡() (3)

the state vector is represented as ϕ=[β  ( ) ̇X Y],
β = Vehicle side slip angle,
 = Vehicle yaw angle,
( ) ̇= Vehicle yaw rate,
(X ) ̇= x-coordinate of the vehicle's centre of gravity in inertial frame,
Y ̇ = y-coordinate of the vehicle's centre of gravity in inertial frame. While the control vector is represented by u = [δ_f], where δ_f is the front tyre steering angle.

Applying Euler's approximation to equations 1, the discrete-time model for the AGV motion is given below:
x(k + 1) = x(k) + v(k) cos(k)T
y(k + 1) = y(k) + v(k) sin(k)T
(k + 1) = (k) + w(k)T (4)
Where, w = tan/l, T is the sampling period and k a sampling instant. Represented in a compact form as, x(k + 1) = f(x(k),u(k)) (5)

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC)
NMPC is a class of MPC theories that are based on the use of nonlinear system models:
x ̇ = f(x(t),u(t)) in the prediction. The cost function can be non-quadratic, and the optimization problem consists of nonlinear constraints on states and controls. Therefore, the optimization problem to be solved at each sampling instant is nonlinear leading to nonlinear model predictive control. Generally, linear MPC could handle problems with multivariable and...

Find Another Essay On The Application of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to Fast Systems Like Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV)

Methods of Increasing Productivity Utilizing Inventory Control Systems- The scope of this research paper is to discuss inventory control systems

4970 words - 20 pages Methods of Increasing Productivity Utilizing Inventory Control SystemsMaster of Science in Operations ManagementYour NameDateInstructorTermUniversity ofI. IntroductionThe scope of this research paper is to discuss inventory control systems as they relate to the overall production for a company. I will first discuss production factors for companies and costs associated with high inventories. Then, switch the focus to describe, discuss, and

Application of Generalist Model Essay

1381 words - 6 pages some goals he might have and what have been some obstacles in his life. I would like to see Yussuf at tens Alcohol Anonymous but these are things he have to suggests. I would continue to work on his self -determination and his strengths and then I would incorporate resources regarding jobs he could do with his disability. While applying the generalist model, I will also focus on strengths. Hafiya needs to focus on positive strengths that she is

Desire To Purse Subject Of Control Systems

1377 words - 6 pages Robotics has been the ultimate form of man’s inspiration from nature as he tries to copy all of his own attributes and implement them on a “non-living” object. Most of its underlying principles, dictated by Physics and Mathematics, culminated in due course of my baccalaureate degree to be encapsulated in a subject called Control Systems. The past few years have given me the chance to explore several areas of Robotics in my projects, ranging from

Control of deep space exploration vehicles

1582 words - 7 pages for deep space vehicle RTG's is generally Plutonium-238 because of its long half-life compared to other components. For example the RTG used for Jupiter orbiter Galileo generates 298W +/- 10% from 56 kg of thermoelectric material and radioactive fuel( Griffin & French, 2004, p.498 ). Finally, in addition to Plutonium-238, Stronium-90 can be used for deep space vehicles. Power conditioning and control is responsible for many functions such as

Vehicles of the Future

1168 words - 5 pages Vehicles of the Future Over time, the technology of our vehicles has changed dramatically. Automobiles of the future will make use of future electronic technologies and propulsion systems. The first self-propelled car was created in 1769 and was powered by steam. (History of the Automobile) It was used to haul artillery at a max speed of 2.5mph and needed to stop multiples times per mile to build up steam. While 2.5mph is only a

Application of Dynamical Systems Theory to Improve Sports Performance

2970 words - 12 pages . Chow et al. (2006) defines dynamical systems theory as the application of the concepts and tools of nonlinear dynamics to coaching practice. Research by Davids et al (2003) noted that in recent studies, tools and concepts from dynamical systems theory have and are being applied to the study of movement systems with great success, contradicting traditional views of variability as noise or error. This perspective shows it is apparent that

The Neuman Systems Model

1604 words - 6 pages The Neuman Systems Model applies a comprehensive and holistic approach to the care of patients based on the five variables. According to Parker and Smith (2010), the Neuman System Model is described as, “wellness orientation, client perception and motivation, and a dynamic systems perspective of energy and variable interaction with the environment to mitigate possible harm from internal and external stressors” (p. 183). The patient/ family are

Autonomous Resistance and the Practice of Autonomism

1976 words - 8 pages mentioned in Bey's article because it has an open membership, which conflicts with his assertion that collectively decided membership is the only way to function as a PAZ.7 He again has tunnel vision with this commune like conception of a PAZ, failing to recognize that other models such as Slab City (an autonomous community with loose organization) have been functionally operating for decades with a permanent open membership and would not even dare

autonomous vehicles and their effect on the future and how they are currently used around the world - essay

1718 words - 7 pages cybernetic transportation systems. tTheir experimental and explicatory article focuses on cybernetic transportation systems (CTS). This is a system that uses autonomous electric cars to complement an existing public transportation system. This research appears to be experimental and explicatory. They wanted to take a look at two different systems that utilize the capabilities of autonomous vehicles. First, in the Centralized Control System ?any user

Application of Porter’s Five Forces Model in the BPM Industry

1908 words - 8 pages . • There were regulatory concerns against outsourcing. • Sentiments of nationalism. Xara Inc. preferred to opt the Porter’s Model to cope up with the boosting competition in the industry, other issues and challenges confronted by the company. They analysed the five forces and constructed a draft model for implementation. Summary of five competitive forces analysis is mentioned below: 5.1. Threat of New Entrants  Entry barriers: Low The resources

Applying Model of Needs to Planning Effective Healthcare Systems

1313 words - 6 pages Introduction In order to define the need of health care and planning appropriate health care system, population level model of needs should be applied. The relationship between poverty and ill health has been researched for more than 100 years(scotch NHS web) and repeated studies have shown a strong relationship between material deprivation, poor health and the need for health care services (course material). In general terms more socially

Similar Essays

Creation Of Autonomous Vehicles Essay

1882 words - 8 pages the driver when it is ready to take over, then simply let go of the wheel and control the brakes, the car does the rest. These technologies are only a few that are relevant to semi-autonomous vehicles and most still need fine tuning and more testing, but you can expect semi-autonomous vehicles commercially available within this decade. Fully-autonomous vehicles will use similar technology just more advanced versions and could be on the road in

The Ford Building Exposition Of Model Vehicles

955 words - 4 pages space for the promotion of commodities still relevant to the lives of economically depressed individuals. In the city of San Diego in the mid thirties the Century of Progress held an exposition in the Ford Building to display and promote their past and current models of vehicles. In the year 1934 San Diego was faced with the perils of a tough economy and were seeking for ways to improve their economic status. The ways in which they were trying to

The Application Of The Response To Intervention Model

760 words - 4 pages This article is about “the difficulties of meeting the needs of twice-exceptional (2e) students, including students who are gifted with learning disabilities (LD)” (Yssel, 2014, p. 42). The problem with identifying students like this, is that they either mask their disability with their giftedness or vice versa. This masking effect “may cause both exceptionalities to appear less extreme; a student may fail to meet gifted criteria because the

"Ground Control" To What Extent Could The Concept Of "Service As Theatre" Be Applied To Starbucks?

1185 words - 5 pages SummaryThis report explains similarities between service of a theatre and coffee shop Starbucks. Marketing mix tools people, process and physical evidence are explained to assist in better understanding of services. The article Ground Control is analysed.IntroductionTo satisfy a customer needs it takes enormous amount of effort, however it can be achieved easier with assistance of various marketing mix tools such as people, process and physical