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The Architectural Evolution Of The Greek Temple

1804 words - 8 pages

The end of the Geometric period resulted in the beginning of the Orientalizing Period, dated between 700-600 BC. Within this time frame, Greek introduced a new innovation, the Peripteral Temple. For many years prior, a row of colonnade was used on the interior primarily to hold up the roof of the building. In contrast, columns are seen being used on the outside, creating a visual wall around the building exposing parts of the interior. With in the temple existed the megaron style, carried forward from Bronze Age homes. It was also in eastern influenced period, the first real stone temples, and terra cotta roof tiles came to exist to hold the weight on these new stone temples. The population grew drastically, introducing new techniques and styles, which blended to form designs with balance and symmetry. It was during this period, two major Greek designs were developed, the Ionic and Doric order. (Pedley, 2012: pg. 180) The Doric order, being the first and most simple, consisted of baseless columns placed closely together as the Greeks did not know how much weight the shortened columns could hold. Reason behind this was the lack of length in the columns were believed to hold less weight and therefore forced into being placed closer together. This closely set arrangement created a very bold statement in the Doric temple. The Capital, which sat on top of the concaved shaped shaft, was left plain but when grouped alongside others, suggested a bold harmony. In contrast, the Ionic order was less bulky and more delicate than the Doric order. The top of the capital is decorated with two scrolls, also known as volutes, which could have resembled a shell or animal horns. Above the capital, held room for a surrounding frieze depicting elaborate carving. Lastly, there was a third order; the Corinthian order, which was not used as much in Greece as it was founded in Corinth in the fifth century. This order ties more to realm of nature as elaborate leaf carvings are found throughout. The layout of the temple is placed upon a stepped platform, which held the colonnades that supported the temple. This foundational layout is also known as a Stylobate. (Pedley, 2012: pg. 198) The front of the temple had two walls called antae, which extended outwards forming an open porch as an entrance to the inside of the temple. This led to the Cella, which embraced the cult image of a particular divine at the back of the temple. The back of the temple, also known as the back chamber created a plan of symmetry to balance out the front porch. The Greeks used the Doric order to complete the Doric Temple of Apollo at Thermon. The rectangular shape of this temple measured to be about 40 meters long and 12 meters wide, holding fifteen columns down the sides, and five at both ends, and a row down the center to support the roof. (Pedley, 2012: pg. 235) The original material used in making the columns was wood, but with the introduction of stone, the columns were replaced to...

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