The Atom Essay

1478 words - 6 pages

A good discussion of the pros and cons of using the atomic bomb to end World War II -AP PhysicsPeriod 2The AtomIn the spring of 1897 J.J. Thomson demonstrated that the beam of glowing matter ina cathode-ray tube was not made of light waves, as 'the almost unanimous opinion ofGerman physicists' held. Rather, cathode rays were negatively charged particles boilingoff the negative cathode and attracted to the positive anode. These particles could bedeflected by an electric field and bent into curved paths by a magnetic field. They weremuch lighter than hydrogen atoms and were identical 'what ever the gas through which thedischarge passes' if gas was introduced into the tube. Since they were lighter than thelightest known kind of matter and identical regardless of the kind of matter they were bornfrom, it followed that they must be some basic constituent part of matter, and if they were apart, then there must be a whole. The real, physical electron implied a real, physical atom:the particulate theory of matter was therefore justified for the first time convincingly byphysical experiment. They sang success at the annual Cavendish dinner.Armed with the electron, and knowing from other experiment that what was leftwhen electrons were stripped away from an atom was much more massive remainder thatwas positively charged, Thomson went on in the next decade to develop a model of theatom that came to be called the 'plum pudding' model. The Thomson atom, 'a number ofnegatively electrified corpuscles enclosed in a sphere of uniform positive electrification'like raisins in a pudding, was a hybrid: particulate electrons and diffuse remainder. Itserved the useful purpose of demonstrating mathematically that electrons could be arrangedin a stable configurations within an atom and that the mathematically stable arrangementscould account for the similarities and regularities among chemical elements that theperiodic table of the elements displays. It was becoming clear that the electrons wereresponsible for chemical affinities between elements, that chemistry was ultimatelyelectrical.Thomson just missed discovering X rays in 1884. He was not so unlucky in legendas the Oxford physicist Frederick Smith, who found that photographic plates kept near acathode-ray tube were liable to be fogged and merely told his assistant to move them toanother place. Thomson noticed that glass tubing held 'at a distance of some feet from thedischarge-tube' fluoresced just as the wall of the tube itself did when bombarded withcathode rays, but he was too intent on studying the rays themselves to purse the cause.Rontgen isolated the effect by covering his cathode-ray tube with black paper. When anearby screen of florescent material still glowed he realized that whatever was causing thescreen to glow was passing through the paper and intervening with the air. If he held hishand between the covered tube and the screen, his hand slightly reduced the glow on thescreen but in the dark shadow he...

Find Another Essay On The Atom

The Structure of the Atom. Rutherford's Experiment

583 words - 2 pages In the year 1898 Thomson created the idea of atom as the positive charged ball in which there are negative charges placed - the "plum cake" model. So summing up whole a atom were to be neutral theIn the years 1909-1911 Ernest Rutherford and his students - Hans Geiger (1882-1945) and Ernest Marsden conducted some experiments to search the problem of alpha particles scattering by the thin gold-leaf. Rutherford knew that the particles contain the

History Time line of the Atom

1590 words - 6 pages Leucippus, Democritus certa 450 B.C.-The idea of the atom was first introduced by Leucippus of Miletus around 450 B.C.. Leucippus and his pupil, Democritus, theorized that all matter was composed of atoms, or bits of matter too small to be seen. The word "atom" comes from a Greek word, "atomos", meaning uncuttable, because Leucippus believed that atoms were the building blocks of all materials and therefore could not be broken down any

Moral Dilemma in History: The Atom Bomb

1001 words - 5 pages Stimson grappled with its necessity even after they authorized its use on Hiroshima and Nagasaki! There are also claims that Truman had other viable alternatives to the bomb that may have prevented the unprecedented destruction wrought by the bomb. Despite the other alternatives, which included continual conventional bombing of Japan and a land invasion, the bomb was the least bloody alternative to end World War II. The atom bomb was the least immoral

Report on the Rutherford Model of the Atom

630 words - 3 pages SINCE ancient times, many models of the atom have been developed, as the result of people attempting to account for properties of matter they had observed. The model developed by Lord Ernest Rutherford introduced many new ideas about the atom, and even though it is now quite old, many people still see the atom in the way he did.Rutherford was a former student of J.J. Thomson, but he thought there were inadequacies in Thomson's work. Thomson

Greatest Technology Of The 20th Century. (I Chose The Atom)

519 words - 3 pages "There will one day spring from the brain of science a machine or force so fearful in its potentialities, so absolutely terrifying, that even man, the fighter, who will dare torture and death in order to inflict torture and death, will be appalled, and so will abandon war forever." Although spoken in 1922, Thomas Edison's words tell ominously of what is to come. The exploitation of the atom altered the world forever, changing the nature of war

How the Atom Bomb Was Developed         The events leading to

1153 words - 5 pages How the Atom Bomb Was Developed The events leading to the development of the atom bomb began in 1896. In that year Henri Becquerel of France discovered radioactivity of certain atoms. Influenced by Becquerel's work, Marie and Pierre Curie discovered two naturally radioactive elements, radium, and polonium. Following this, many more important discoveries occurred. In 1905 Albert Einstein of Germany advanced his famous theory E=mc2

How the Atom Bomb Was Developed         The events leading to

1153 words - 5 pages How the Atom Bomb Was Developed The events leading to the development of the atom bomb began in 1896. In that year Henri Becquerel of France discovered radioactivity of certain atoms. Influenced by Becquerel's work, Marie and Pierre Curie discovered two naturally radioactive elements, radium, and polonium. Following this, many more important discoveries occurred. In 1905 Albert Einstein of Germany advanced his famous theory E=mc2

Historic development of the atom and its implications

1149 words - 5 pages The atom has been suggested as the smallest complete part of matter since the time of the ancient Greek philosophers but they did not have a clear picture of the nature of the atom or any possible structure because of limitations to their scientific knowledge. Dalton was a scientist who suggested in 1810 that the principal feature of atoms is that an element is a pure substance because it contains identical atoms. This was the first time that

Was Truman Justified in dropping the atom bomb?

2312 words - 9 pages billion, which each atom bomb costing one fourth of that . The new technology was tested only once - in its plutonium version, not the uranium core that was used on Japan. The Trinity test was detonated near Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16th . General Leslie Groves, head of the Project, wrote a detailed informal memorandum to Secretary Henry Stimson after witnessing, first-hand, the test explosion. In it he writes, "The test was successful beyond

The effect of the halogen atom on the rate of hydrolysis

632 words - 3 pages Effect of the halogen atom on the rate of hydrolysisAim: to find the rate at which different halogenoalkanes hydrolyse to form a sliver precipitate in silver nitrate solution.Hypothesis: I think that 1-iodobutane will be the fastest to react followed by 1- bromobutane and then by 1-chlorobutane. This is because 1-iodobutane has the lowest bond energy out of the three and I think that this will make it easier for it to react with the silver

Analysis of the Hydrogen Atom

700 words - 3 pages Hydrogen (comes from the Greek words, hudôr (water), and gennan (generate)) is one of the simplest elements on earth. It is estimated to make up more than ninety percent of all the atoms, three quarters the mass of the universe. Hydrogen has the highest energy content of any common fuel by weight, but the lowest energy content by volume. Hydrogen is the most abundant gas and the source of all energy that we humans receive from the sun, but is

Similar Essays

The Atom Essay

1132 words - 5 pages An Atom is the smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles. It also is the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristic properties of a chemical element. As such, the atom is the basic building block of chemistry.John Dalton -John Dalton developed the first useful atomic theory of matter around 1803. Whilst studying meteorology, Dalton concluded that evaporated water exists in air

The Development Of The Atom Essay

500 words - 2 pages An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction. Also each one element’s atoms are different from another element’s atoms, and each atom of the same element is identical. They can be physically mixed together or chemically combined in simple whole number ratios. Last of all, chemical reactions have occurred when the atoms are joined, separated, or rearranged, but never changed. The

The Model Of The Atom Essay

1412 words - 6 pages physics, one of the topics was Atomic and Nuclear physics. The topic was mainly about nuclear structure, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions and so on, but there was something in that topic that drew my attention, the model of the Atom. Ever since the fifth century, the understanding of the atom has evolved. The Greeks invented the idea of the atom, and they believed that it wasn’t physically divisible. Then, John Dalton revised the theory and

History Of The Atom Nickel Essay

1410 words - 6 pages elements into variants he called "isotopes" or totally new elements, discovered "half-life", made initial calculations on energy released during decay.1900 Max Planckused the idea of quanta (discrete units of energy) to explain hot glowing matter.1903 Nagaoka Postulated a "Saturnian" model of the atom with flat rings of electrons revolving around a positively charged particle.1904 Abegg Discovered that inert