The Begining And Ending Of The Universe.

1186 words - 5 pages

Astronomy 1A9 December 2003The Beginning and Ending of the UniverseThe following essay is about the beginning and ending of the universe. The sources I will be using are a "The Creation of the Universe" a film by Timothy Ferris, and the forth edition Astronomy book by Chaisson and Mcmillan.There are many theories of how the universe all began and how it will end. I will be emphasizing on the creation and evolution of the universe. I will be referring to the theory most widely used: The Big Bang theory. This theory basically states that everything in the universe was at a single point, that point exploded, sending parts and debris everywhere at very high speeds, which evolved into the universe. This all happened somewhere between 9 and 14 billion years ago. The age of a critical-density universe with no cosmological constant is about 9 billion years old. The universe was composed entirely of radiation when it all began. Radiation ultimately produced everything we see around us. The earliest known time that can be described by modern physics is called Planck's time. This time is 10-43 seconds. We do not know what happened before Planck's time because we lack a theory. We need a quantum theory of gravity.GUT's are the Grand Unified Theories, which are theories that express the actions of the single force that results from combining of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. In the beginning there was 1 force, supergravity. There are now 4 forces in nature.210-34 seconds after the Big Bang the temperature was 1028 kelvins. For a moment the universe entered a very strange, and unsteady high-energy state. Temporarily empty space gained massive pressure, which momentarily overpowered the pull of gravity. This caused the universe to expand very rapidly at a huge rate. The pressures stayed constant as the heavens extended. Every 10-34 the universe doubled. Temperatures were high enough, during the first minute after the Big Bang, that individual photons of radiation had adequate energy to convert themselves into material, in the form of elementary particles. 100 seconds after the formation of the universe the temperature was 107 k. Helium, deuterium, and a few other elements formed. Two minutes after the Big Bang the temperature was below 900 million k. Protons and neutrons fused to form deuterium. Deuterium nuclei before were broke apart by high-energy gamma rays as quick as they were produced. About 15 minutes following the Big Bang, helium was twenty-five percent of the total mass of normal matter in the universe. The rest was composed of hydrogen. When the universe was a thousand years young, electrons, protons, dark matter, and helium nuclei began to tower above radiation. The temperature throughout this time was tens of thousands of kelvins. During the next few hundred thousand years the temperature fell by a thousand kelvins. Nuclei and electrons merged to form neutral atoms. At a redshift of 5 the universe was just 1/6 of its present size....

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