Functionality means individual capabilities to carry out activities of daily life in a harmless and self-regulating way without being fatigue. Physical inactivity invites various problems in elderly individuals. The reasons of immobility in elderly people are poor health, hospitalization, and disability that reduce body’s muscle mass1. At the age of 50 years, minor reduction in muscle strength occurs and after the age of 65 years each decade it reduces 12% to 15% 2 .The study mentions that “Loss of muscle mass, particularly of fast-twitch or Type II fibers that accompany advanced age, is associated with muscle weakness, increased fatigability, and a loss of functional independency”1. Decreased muscle strength in elderly people which includes reduced muscle mass (atrophy) and decreased capacity to produce enough force that indirectly affects their ADL.1 Hence, Strength training plays an important role in elderly fitness programs. Impaired balance is major cause of falls in elderly individuals and it is necessary to implement balance exercise in their daily life. As people get older, their aerobic capacity is reduced which is responsible for cardiac, pulmonary, and peripheral disease so, aerobic exercise helps geriatric people to improve their aerobic capacity.4
Older individuals suffer from various diseases like diabetes, heart diseases and stroke. According to National Diabetes Fact sheet (2011), “26.9% or 10.9 million of all people in age 65 years or older had diabetes in 2010”5. The CDC indicates that “seven of every 10 Americans die each year, or more than 1.7 million people die due to chronic disease”5
Numbers of elderly individuals are increasing rapidly. According to the state of Aging and Health (2013’), “The people aged over 65 years and older will be doubled in the next 25 years.”5 “Each year there is 3.5 million baby boomers are entering in the age of 55. By the 2030, there will be 72.1 million older people which are twice than year of 2000.”5 Reasons are life expectancy and baby boomers.
Elderly individuals fall frequently and that is the important matter to be considered. The CDC indicates that,” one in every three older adults age 65 or above falls every year”5. People who fall suffer from moderate injuries such as laceration, fractures to serious injuries such as traumatic brain injuries and death. Fall is the reason of death in elder population. A CDC mentions that “Around 21,700 older adults died due to fall injuries”5 Due to fall, people lose their confidence and afraid of falling again. Fall also affects their physical and social activities. The reasons of fall are improper balance, decreased muscle strength and flexibility.
Elderly people live sedentary life that invites various physical problems. Older people are habitual to smoking and drinking habits that is the reason of various cardiac and pulmonary diseases. People who live isolated from their...