The Benifits Of Cloning. Essay

3320 words - 13 pages

A controversial issue of the twenty-first century is the possible application of new techniques in genetic engineering to produce human clones. Up until now genetic engineering and cloning has been used to clone plants, unicellular organisms, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to significant advances in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Newer techniques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect of cloning humans has raised many practical, ethical and religious dilemmas that are currently being debated by society. As of now, the actual cloning of humans does not seem likely to occur in the foreseeable future.Genetic engineering is the changing of an organism's DNA, genetic material to eliminate unwanted traits or to produce desirable traits. The earliest form of genetic engineering dates back to the scientist Gregor Mendel who did experiments with peas. He bred only the peas with the most desirable traits in order to achieve a healthier and stronger pea (McCuen 8). This method, called selective breeding, is still used today with plants and animals in order to increase food production. Corn plants are selectively bred in order to produce a larger tastier kernel. Another type of genetic engineering called hybridization or crossbreeding involves breeding animals of different species in order to obtain the most desirable traits of both. Male donkeys are crossbred with female horses to produce mules, which are good work animals (Levine 1).Genes are made of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid. The discovery of DNA in 1953 by Drs. Watson and Crick led to a much better understanding of the structure and function of genes. Since that scientific discovery many scientists have developed techniques to manipulate the DNA in genes in order to control different genetic processes. In the 1970s, scientists discovered restriction enzymes, which are enzymes that are able to cut and splice DNA. This led to the scientific technique known as recombinant DNA, which has paved the way for more sophisticated types of genetic engineering (McCuen 8).Recombinant DNA technique involves removing DNA molecules from one organism's cell and combining it in vitro with another organism's DNA to form useful and important DNA molecules. The recombined DNA is transferred into the organism and directs the cell to produce certain essential proteins that the organism cannot otherwise produce (Suzuki and Knudtson114-116). In most cases, DNA from a donor organism cannot be transferred directly to the receiving or host organism because of incompatibilities between the organisms. Instead, the donor DNA must be cut and combined with a matching piece of DNA from a vector, an organism that can carry the donor DNA into the host. The host is usually a harmless bacterium that is known to multiply rapidly. This type of genetic engineering...

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