The Big Bang Theory Essay

1180 words - 5 pages

It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whetherif and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses calledcosmological models that try to find the answer. There are twotypes of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, throughmany observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can bestexplain the creation of the universe.The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billionyears ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in anevent called the Big Bang. Before the Big Bang, all of thematter and radiation of our present universe were packed togetherin the primeval fireball--an extremely hot dense state from whichthe universe rapidly expanded.1 The Big Bang was the start oftime and space. The matter and radiation of that early stagerapidly expanded and cooled. Several million years later, itcondensed into galaxies. The universe has continued to expand,and the galaxies have continued moving away from each other eversince. Today the universe is still expanding, as astronomershave observed.The Steady State model says that the universe does notevolve or change in time. There was no beginning in the past,nor will there be change in the future. This model assumes theperfect cosmological principle. This principle says that theuniverse is the same everywhere on the large scale, at alltimes.2 It maintains the same average density of matter forever.There are observational evidences found that can prove theBig Bang model is more reasonable than the Steady State model.First, the redshifts of distant galaxies. Redshift is a Dopplereffect which states that if a galaxy is moving away, the spectralline of that galaxy observed will have a shift to the red end.The faster the galaxy moves, the more shift it has. If thegalaxy is moving closer, the spectral line will show a blueshift. If the galaxy is not moving, there is no shift at all.However, as astronomers observed, the more distance a galaxy islocated from Earth, the more redshift it shows on the spectrum.This means the further a galaxy is, the faster it moves.Therefore, the universe is expanding, and the Big Bang modelseems more reasonable than the Steady State model.The second observational evidence is the radiation producedby the Big Bang. The Big Bang model predicts that the universeshould still be filled with a small remnant of radiation leftover from the original violent explosion of the primeval fireballin the past. The primeval fireball would have sent strongshortwave radiation in all directions into space. In time, thatradiation would spread out, cool, and fill the expanding universeuniformly. By now it would strike Earth as microwave radiation.In 1965 physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detectedmicrowave radiation coming equally from all directions in thesky, day and night, all year.3 And so it appears thatastronomers have detected the fireball radiation that wasproduced by the Big Bang. This casts serious doubt on the SteadyState model. The Steady State could not...

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