The Biological And Psychoanalytical Perspectives In Psychology

2019 words - 8 pages

In this essay the author will throughout compare the biological and psychoanalytical key features and core assumptions in psychology and show in what ways they are similar for example both being deterministic in there key features and core assumptions also how they differ for example the way they treat individuals with the same disorder differently.
The biological perspective core assumptions suggest our nervous system performs functions like our behaviour, experiences and movements (Carlson 2010). The biological approach tries to understand the relationship between an individual’s mind and body and also the influence of heredity on their behaviour (Glassman and Hadad 2013). However psychoanalytical approach created by Sigmund Freud (Goodwin 2005) core assumptions are less scientific as it focuses on more unobservable and less measureable aspects like the Id, ego and superego as well as the psychosexual theory of personality. The psychoanalytical approach attempts to understand individual’s behaviours by analysing how personality is shaped by past experiences and the working of the mind (Glassman and Hadad 2013).
On one hand both biological and psychoanalytic perspective are similar as they both take a deterministic approach in psychology when it comes to their core assumptions and key features, this means they both believe that human beings possess something inside themselves which can produce an effect on their own behaviour (Bell 2005) as biological researchers tend to view behaviour as being purely physical (Gasman and Hadad 2013) this meaning that it is a biological abnormalities that controls our behaviour.
The biological perspective would suggest that any abnormalities that we may have are a result of error’s occurring in our physical bodies or heredity for example the biological approach suggest that schizophrenics who are disorganized this is due to their neuronal interactions such as under activity of the NMDA-receptors channels (Phillips & Silverstein 2003). Also biological psychologist suggest schizophrenia can be passed down through the genes as Gottesman shows in his research the closer the relation the more risk of inheriting schizophrenia (Moldin & Gottesman1997). This shows how the biological approach is determined as they suggest there is a specific reason to abnormalities it’s either a biological malfunction or down to the genes.
Also the psychoanalytical approach is deterministic as it suggests that specific events that occur in an individual’s childhood influence their adulthood and they have no control over this behaviour. Also they can be seen to be deterministic as one of their core assumptions suggest individual’s behaviours are controlled by unconscious forces for example the Id, ego and super ego (Goodwin 2005). For example Freud’s early work on Anna O who was a Bertha Pappenheim who had a whole range of different psychological symptoms for example paralysis of the right arm also known as glove anaesthesia,...

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