• The birth of Hezbollah from the ruins of the Amal movement
When the Iranian Revolution succeeded in 1979, Iran wanted to gain the admiration and the support of Arab countries, benefiting in particular from the support by the Shah of Iran and his relationship with Israel before the collapse of his regime. On this very first day of the victory of the revolution, Iran was keen to extend its bonds with the Islamic world, and when this was not possible in most cases, because of many complex causes of the revolution, Iran began to look for «organizations» instead of «regime’s or countries», in order to continue its role in Islamic issues. Iran was keen to show that this role was one of the foundations of the revolution and its beliefs, in order to free Iran from the charge of Persian racism.
Relations between Iran and Syria had entered a phase of strategic coordination, thanks to two men, Saddam Hussein and Musa al-Sadr, though the impact of each was quite different. Through Musa al-Sadr and his group in the Amal movement, including some leading Iranians such as Mustafa Chamran the first defence minister in the government of post-revolutionary Iran, the late Syrian President Hafez al-Assad got to know Ayatollah Khomeini and his ideas, to the extent that Iranian activists close to Khomeini, were carrying Syrian diplomatic passports, before the revolution in February 1979. After Musa al-Sadr, the former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein played a role in strengthening relations between Tehran and Damascus, without realizing the effects that this would have on Iraq and the region. Saddam engaged in a war with Iran shortly after the revolution. Not only did Tehran feel in danger, but a sense of danger has spread from Tehran to Damascus, where the Baathist regime was not close to its counterpart of the Baathist regime in Iraq. The regime of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad backed Iran, hoping to weaken its enemy, the Iraqi Baath Party, which Damascus felt as a threat to her, especially if they defeated Iran in the war. Damascus fears were reinforced because of Saddam Hussein's accusations against Hafez al-Assad, accusing him of sending Syrian troops to Iran to fight the Iraqi army.
The Special relationship between Iran and Syria did not begin with the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, but years earlier and it did not begin in Damascus, but in Lebanon and the hands of a Lebanese – Iranian, Moussa al-Sadr is. Years before the Iranian revolution, there were a lot of supporters of the Iranian Ayatollah Khomeini moving between Lebanon and Iraq after their presence in Iran formed a threat to their lives and their movements. Musa al-Sadr is credited with laying the foundations for the special relations between Tehran and Damascus, and the Amal movement.
Moussa al-Sadr was of Lebanese origin, but was born and educated in Qom, Iran for many years before returning to Lebanon, , in addition to he and the leader of Iranian revolution Ayatollah...