The Body’s Natural Response To Stress With Particular Attention To Ptsd And The Appropriate Physiological And Psychological Treatments.

1334 words - 6 pages

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder can occur in anyone who has witnessed a traumatic event. Military personnel, rape victims and myocardial infarction sufferers are most likely to develop the highly debilitating illness that can present days or decades after an event. Sufferers exhibit numerous psychological and physiological symptoms including anxiety, depression, and insomnia, with vivid flashbacks leaving sufferers feeling venerable and hyperaroused in daily situations (NHS 2013). To cope with PTSD, the mind uses repressive or rational coping mechanisms and their benefits and hindrances will be discussed in this essay. When these mechanisms are insufficient, physiological treatments of drugs and psychological treatments of psychotherapy can be administered to manage symptoms. The advantages and limitations associated with each treatment will also be discussed.

Many of those who have experienced traumatic events develop a coping mechanism to try to process their experiences. One such mechanism is repressive coping. This involves blocking out stimuli which prompt memories of the event. A study by Ginzberg, Solomon and Bleich (2002) provided evidence that those displaying signs of repressive coping were less likely to show PTSD symptoms following a myocardial infarction. They found that repressors had the lowest rate of clinical PTSD at only 7.1 percent compared to 20 percent of low anxious participants, 19.4 percent of high anxious participants and 17.2 percent of those with defensive tendencies. Those presenting repressive coping also had lower instances of any degree of PTSD with 82.1 percent showing no symptoms compared to 70 percent of the low anxious group, 36.1 percent of the high anxious group and 44.8 percent of the defensive group. They also had lower instances of hyperarousal and avoidance. This demonstrates that those who use repressive coping techniques are less likely to develop PTSD, dealing with the stress of upsetting events efficiently. However Suls and Fletcher (1985, p477) found that although repression was beneficial in the short term, it would lead to lasting effects on an individual’s health. They found that avoiding the issue would lead to “disregulation over the long- term, depression of the immunologic sys-tem, and an increase in the probability of subsequent illness.” The evidence suggests that while repressive coping can be favourable in the short-term for those susceptible to PTSD, it could result in issues later on due to failing to confront disturbing experiences.

Contrasting this is rational coping, whereby individuals directly face the issue prompting their stress and attempt to defeat it (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner 2009). There are three stages to rationally overcoming fears – accepting the fear, confronting it and understanding why it causes stress. Rational coping is the main concept behind psychotherapy and according to Foa et al (1999) reduces symptoms to a greater degree than other forms of therapy...

Find Another Essay On The body’s natural response to stress with particular attention to PTSD and the appropriate physiological and psychological treatments.

The Physiological Advantages and Disadvantages to Athletic Sports Performance

3882 words - 16 pages problem of blood doping is concerned with abuse rather than use, with athletes re-infusing excessive amounts of erythrocytes to constantly improve endurance performance to its maximum, to maintain their reign at number one in their sport. This puts considerable strain on the cardiovascular system and can lead to, sometimes fatal, physiological problems. The quandary with blood doping, and indeed what makes it

Discuss the presentation of the murder of Nancy in 'Oliver Twist' by Charles Dickens, paying particular attention to his use of setting, character and language

1512 words - 6 pages Discuss the presentation of the murder of Nancy in 'Oliver Twist' by Charles Dickens, paying particular attention to his use of setting, character and language.Oliver Twist was written by Charles Dickens and set in Victorian London, and in the late 1830's the novel was published which was also at the beginning of Queen Victoria's reign, the novel was presented as a satirical social critique as Dickens is taking the Michael out of the way people

America´s Hostile Response to the Vietnam War and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

1910 words - 8 pages combat experiences and the post-war experiences of adjusting back to their old ways of life left huge psychological marks on the veterans of the Vietnam War. With every war there are psychological impacts- so then, how is it that with this particular war, the percentage of those psychologically scarred for life and displaying symptoms of PTSD is higher than any war to date? Well, breaking things down, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is not

An investigation into the impact IT has had on the modern world with particular reference to business and social problems

3375 words - 14 pages to establish as it is usually only discovered by accident, with only about two percent of security breaches discovered as a result of positive action on the part of security staff. Hacking is often perpetrated by employees of a company who have acquired inside knowledge of particular user IDs and passwords. The ability of such hackers to carry out illegal actions without being detected is often hampered by the audit and monitor software that all

Assess the impact of the invention of transistors on society with particular reference to their use in microchips and microprocessors

406 words - 2 pages ; head office, between parents and young children away from home. Mobile phones allowed contact between people who don't have access to a landline phone.The development of robots having higher intelligence and cheaper cost is only possible with the extensive use of microprocessors. Robots are now used in large factories to do repetitive manual work once done by human beings.The development of bombs having very high accuracy has changed the value of

Stress: Avoidance and Treatments

2803 words - 11 pages what exactly is stress? What causes a stress to linger? And what are the ways to avoid a stressful life? Some consider any type of stress to be just a natural reaction to stressful situations. A research study in 2013 showed more than 70 percent of Americans say they feel stressed on a daily basis (American Psychological Association, 2013). Since stress can seriously damage individuals’ health and well-being in this paper, the researcher will

Wanted and Unwanted Sounds and Their Affects on the Psychological and Physiological Performance

3660 words - 15 pages Wanted and Unwanted Sounds and Their Affects on the Psychological and Physiological Performance Research Question: How does “unwanted” sound affect the physiological and psychological performance differently than “wanted” sound? Thesis statement: “Wanted” and “unwanted” sounds have the same physiological effects on the human body but effect its psychological performance differently. Introduction: Sound is a particular

Analysis of the Psycho-Thriller genre with particular reference to Basic Instinct, Fatal Attraction and Single White Female

2048 words - 8 pages An analysis of The Psycho - Thriller Genre with particular reference to Basic Instinct (1992), Fatal Attraction (1987) and Single White Female (1992).Genre goes back to the earliest forms of cinema and was seen as a way of organising films according to type. It wasn't until the 1960's that Genre was introduced into the use of main stream theory. The French critic André Bazin was actually already using the term in the 1950's when making

Using a Particular Service User Group Critically Analyse the Theoretical Principles with Regard to Social Justice and Social Exclusion

1956 words - 8 pages behaviour is described to be a reaction to a society that appears to favour particular members, this theory can be used to explain why individuals participated in the London 2011 riots, as they may have felt that their goals and dreams could not be achieved through passing exams, going to university and getting jobs. However Merton acknowledged that some societies where there are massive gaps between the poor and rich with much closed societies do not

Discuss the different strategies to manage products and services throughout the product life cycle with particular reference to mature products and deletion decisions

3354 words - 13 pages substitute products have been introduced or customer tastes have changed.Whether it is a physical goods or services, the effective way of outperforming competitors with same quality and price of core products is providing customers with a large variety of services in addition to the core product. Kotler (2000:3) present an idea that "Customers buy offerings of goods, services, information, personal attention and other components." Service is a part

What Are the Physiological And Psychological Effects of E-Reading on the E-Reader?

1892 words - 8 pages What Are the Physiological And Psychological Effects of E-Reading on the E-Reader? E-reading has its roots way back in the 1930's. Bob Brown was the first to materialize the idea of e-reading. His first work The Readies were first produced after watching his first "talkie" movie ("Bob Brown's The Reader (1930), Retrieved May 20, 2014.) But it wasn't until the late 1940's the idea of an e-reader was conceived. Several people have claimed the

Similar Essays

The Physiological And Psychological Effects Of Music

1307 words - 6 pages , researchers attempted to determine the effects of group music intervention on a group of psychiatric patients. After 15 sessions of music intervention, the patients showed significant improvements in depression, and anxiety, thus leading the researchers to conclude that music can help people deal with their emotional problems (Choi, et al. 567-570). Similarly, in the article "Listening to Music and Physiological and Psychological Functioning: The

Bipolar Disorder: Treatments And How To Cope With The Disease

1652 words - 7 pages connections with God, celebrities, or political leaders, hyperactivity, excessive plans or participation in numerous activities that have a good chance for painful results, thoughts which race uncontrollably, decreased sleep, attention easily diverted to inconsequential or unimportant details, and/or sudden irritability, rage, or paranoia. In full blown manic psychosis, the mood is usually elations, but irritability and frank hostility with

The Response To Stress And The Effect Of Stress On The Immune System

2083 words - 8 pages the general adaptation syndrome: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. The alarm stage is a generalized state of arousal during the body's initial response to the stressor. At the resistance stage, the body adapts to the stressor and continues to resist it with a high level of physiological arousal. When the stress persists for a long time, and the body is chronically overactive, resistance fails and the body moves to the exhaustion stage (Poole et

Analysis Of Napoleon As An Individual In History; Particular Attention Is Paid To Napoleon's Role As Emperor And The Abilities That Allowed Him To Accomplish His Fantastic Achievements,

1660 words - 7 pages Napoleon Bonaparte: Image of an EmperorNapoleon's story has a fairy tale quality, but instead of rags to riches it is immigrant to Emperor. What follows is an analysis of Napoleon as an individual in history; particular attention is paid to Napoleon's role as emperor and the abilities that allowed him to accomplish his fantastic achievements,"Even when I am gone, I shall remain in people's minds the star of their rights, my name will be the war