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The Bundle Theory By David Hume

1642 words - 7 pages

The mystery of consciousness has puzzled humans for thousands of years. We feel pain, hunger, and countless other perceived emotions that we know to be true. We are all aware that we are conscious; however, nobody has discovered whether or not the human body is organized in a specific way that leads to consciousness. The fact is that the existence of consciousness, the very essence of knowledge, is undeniable, regardless of the lack of a concrete systematic organization of facts to explain it. This can be explained by Aristotle’s idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In order to consider the statement, “Knowledge is nothing more than the systematic organization of facts”, we must consider different ways of knowing, such as reason, perception, and emotion. By exploring two areas of knowledge, the natural sciences and ethics, I will illustrate that knowledge, which can be defined as “justified true belief” , is ultimately greater than the systematic organization of facts. The natural sciences and ethics both implement the systematic organization of facts (through the organization of models and the organization of morals, respectively), which leads to a holistic reasoning process in order to obtain knowledge in natural sciences and a categorical reasoning process to determine what is right and wrong in ethics.
The natural sciences attempt to explain the physical world through the interaction of organized models. Hypotheses, theories, and laws are related to each other in order to create a web of ideas that explain the connections between natural phenomena. These hypotheses, theories, and laws are made by observing objective truths about the physical world and then using that empirical evidence to reason why certain events occur. For example, in Biology, we learned about the organization of life, which is as follows in decreasing order: the organism, the organ system, the tissue, the cell, and then the organelles. In Chemistry, we took this hierarchy further to a pre-cellular level and learned about the molecule, the atom, and subatomic particles. These facts, justified by empirical evidence, were systematically organized in order to explain the emergence of life. This explanation of life illustrates the theory of synergy, or “the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects” . This interaction will lead to the emergence of life, a new property that arises out of the interaction of simpler systems. The hierarchy of life relates to the example of consciousness illustrated previously. In terms of looking at consciousness from a materialist perspective, behaviorists have attempted to dissect the brain in order to determine how consciousness arises. However, despite the efforts to model how the interaction of firing neurons results in consciousness, the cause for it remains to be unexplained. Science cannot deny that...

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