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The Cell And Neoplasm (Cancer) Essay

1998 words - 8 pages

Introduction to Human Biology.The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the human cell works and the components within it, including details on mitosis and its process, the importance of DNA and chromosomes, how they work and protein synthesis. I will then look at the effect of neoplasm on the cell and all the consequences that it has. This will include factors such as growth, symptoms and prevention. Then I will research possible treatment for a particular neoplasm, which will be cancer of the skin.Every cell performs many different tasks to survive and consists of many organelles which all have their own part to play in the function of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubes mainly used for protein synthesis and breaking down toxins, there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough, it is known as rough because it has ribosomes attached to it. Ribosomes are made of protein and nucleic acid and every second in every animal cell one million amino acids are added to growing proteins, the ribosome can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or they can be free particles in the cytoplasm. Golgi bodies are the modification of endoplasmic reticulum and are responsible for packing proteins ready for export from the cell, it's made up of around six flat discs and the vesticles it produces may be exported from the cell. The cell membrane protects the rest of the cell and is permeable which allows things to move in and out of the cell, it is a bi-layer structure consisting of lipids and proteins. Lysosome is the modification of Golgi; they literally eat things which disturb the natural order of the cell. Mitochondria are also inside the cell and are very important because it is the power station of the cell. It has two main functions; one is to burn the waste products to make simple chemicals like carbon dioxide and water and secondly to make ATP. The Mitochondria is the site for aerobic respiration and Krebs cycle. All of these organelles are in a liquid called cytoplasm, which is mostly made of water and proteins.However the most important part of the cell is the nucleus, it contains most of the chromosomes and is separated from the rest of the cell by its own membrane, this membrane links up with the Endoplasmic reticulum and has pores,. The nucleus is the largest structure in the cell and although it is tiny, it contains two metres of nucleic acid wound around proteins called histones, this nucleic acid is made up of DNA and RNA and it is these that make cell proteins. Each part of the DNA in the chromosomes makes a copy of itself in RNA, these lengths of messenger RNA leave the nucleus through the pores and attach themselves to the ribosomes, being in the nucleus and separate from the rest of the cell, there is less chance of them becoming damaged.The nucleus is also the starting point of cell division, but before the cell can divide the nucleus grows bigger and the chromosomes become more apparent, the process during...

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