This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Chemistry Of Natural Waters Essay

3836 words - 15 pages

Defined in Chemtrek as “The presence of the dissolved divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. . . (which) gives natural waters chemical properties”, hard water has always been a curse to both animals and man 1 . It promotes scale, the buildup of magnesium and calcium to the point where a rock-like substance forms in household and industrial pipes, disrupts natural habitats and reproductive cycles of fresh water fish, and causes many health-related problems in humans 2 . To avoid such problems, it is important to understand ways that commercial businesses and homeowners can test for hard water. This experiment examines two possible methods of testing water hardness. They include: AA spectroscopy, which measures a water sample's absorption of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , and EDTA titration, which uses a titration's end-point to determine the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ present in a water source 1 . It is also important to learn about water softening, a process that removes calcium and magnesium from water sources 3 . For this experiment, I explored water softening techniques such as divalent cation removal ion exchange and water softening with a commercial water-conditioning agent 4 .

My group decided to test AA spectroscopy, EDTA titration, and water softening techniques on four natural water samples from Little Chickies Creek in Mount Joy,PA; Allegheny River in Warren, PA; Stone Valley Lake in State College, PA; and a pond on Orr Avenue in Apollo, PA because it is imperative to know about the quality of Pennsylvania's waterways. My hypothesis stated that the water from Little Chickies Creek would be the hardest because it is located by several limestone quarries, which deposit calcium and magnesium into creeks and streams 5 . I proposed that the water from Stone Valley Lake would have the second highest levels of calcium and magnesium because it is also in an area with a lot of limestone. I also proposed that the water from the pond on Orr Avenue would be the third hardest since the surrounding area has some limestone. However, I presumed that the water from the Allegheny River would be the softest because it has been affected by Acid Mine Drainage, a process where run-off from coal mining seeps into water sources and raises its acidity and pH, therefore lowering its hardness 6 .

After completing the experiment, I used the data to calculate the hardness of each sample, classify the samples as soft (0-60ppm), moderate (61-120ppm), hard (121-180ppm), or very hard (over 180ppm), and determine if my hypothesis proved correct 7 . These results are not only important in the context of this lab, but they can inform people on how hard water affects both themselves and the environmental community.

Procedure 1

First, I examined my water sample from Little Chickies Creek and determined that the water needed to be filtered for excess particles. Once the water was filtered, I verified that my water sample contained nonvolatile...

Find Another Essay On The Chemistry of Natural Waters

The Chemistry of Gunpowder Essay

956 words - 4 pages Improving warfare technology was an extremely important aspect of the Civil War.  Gunpowder or black powder played an important role in the Civil war and gunpowder involves a great deal of chemistry.  It consists of three ingredients sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter).  For only three ingredients the chemical reaction is a very complicated and its chemical equation is 4 KNO3 + C7H4O + 2 S ------> 2 K2S + 4 CO2 + 3 CO + 2H2O + 2

Chemistry of the Stratosphere Essay

995 words - 4 pages There are several techniques used to investigate the chemistry of thestratosphere. The first of these is monitoring which involvesanalysing the air using spectroscopy. Given that ozone absorbs in theinfra-red and ultra-violet regions of the spectrum, the concentrationon ozone in a sample can be calculated form the strength of itsabsorption (figure1). This has to be carried out at different timesand in different conditions to ensure any decrease

The chemistry of shampoo

1583 words - 6 pages be repaired. Shampoo products can only provide temporary benefits to the look and feel of the hair.Shampoos that claim to be "organic", or "all natural" should not be trusted. The efficiency of organic plants and vitamins has never been proven since after all, hair is dead. Although it is not necessary to stick with the same brand of shampoo for all your needs, a change in shampoos can sometimes help the hair.There is a proper technique to

The Inevitable Truth in “By the Waters of Babylon”

770 words - 4 pages In the short story “By the Waters of Babylon” by Stephen Vincent Benet, the theme of truth is revealed by Johns father when he said, "Truth is a hard deer to hunt. If you eat too much truth at once, you may die of the truth” (Benet 326). “By the Waters of Babylon” focuses on the thought that man is capable of anything and everything, including diminishing itself. The author establishes the theme of truth throughout the story by the futuristic

Chysalids Compared To By The Waters Of Babylon

1173 words - 5 pages Two very good stories are The Chrysalids by John Wyndham and “By The Waters Of Babylon” by Stephen Vincent Benet. Both these stories are sci-fi and depict what human civilizations will be like after a nuclear holocaust. The result of the holocaust has altered the Hill People and Waknuk people’s morals and religious beliefs. The main difference between the stories is one is viewing the future as positive the other is portraying the future

My theme opinion on By the Waters of Babylon

634 words - 3 pages Alexander Lopez Lopez 1Mr. HernandezEnglish 1021 September 2014By the Waters of Babylon: Avoiding ApocalypseThe story "By the Waters of Babylon" takes place in both a tribe in a forests and later the remains of what we know was New York. As John, a son of a priest, makes his journey to his limit, he decides to go farther and reach the city of the god to understand more about them. Upon reaching his destination, he finds out that the "gods" were

the end of natural

947 words - 4 pages , reuse, and reduce are the most important solutions to solve. Furthermore, donate clothes and old equipment such as TV, table, and chair for charity is an advantageous way to prevent the increasing of trash waste. Changing our habit is the key, rethink before shopping, using. It is clearly that recycling decreases environmental pollution. All in all, it is worth trying to preserve natural habitats because the environment is the most serious thing we

The History of Chemistry: Chemistry is True Science

733 words - 3 pages all became essential to surviving in the ancient times. “Chemistry is considered to have become a full-fledged science with the work of Antoine Lavoisier, who developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurements and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena.” (, N.p... Web. 7 Dec 2013. This is how society life was before the usage of Chemistry. Natural

The Role of Natural History

720 words - 3 pages dissects a philosophical issue to arrive at a greater understanding. This is often done by experiment or dissecting it into parts and calculating their relationship and equilibrium. One cannot experiment in an open system without throwing off the dynamic, just as one cannot explain the through calculation the equilibrium in a vast and complicated system. The study of natural history cannot always dissect its subjects as does dynamics and chemistry

The chemistry of the Human Digestive System

1502 words - 7 pages Throughout time there has been many intriguing questions and theories that try to decode everyday life situations. By using the study of matter, also known as chemistry, many of these questions have being answered. Chemistry is everywhere, from the mixture of different gases in the air that we breathe, to the organic substances that make such items like plastic, metals, and other substances. However, most

The Chemistry of the Hydrogen Bond

1727 words - 7 pages Types of Bonds All bonds, in and around an atom, fall into two categories – Intermolecular and Intramolecular bonds. These two categories can then be broken further down to three subcategories; Intramolecular Chemical Bonds – A chemical bond is a link between atoms via the sharing of electrons through overlapping orbitals. A typical chemical bond will contain two electrons and one electron will usually originate from each of the atoms

Similar Essays

The Chemistry Of Natural Water Essay

2137 words - 9 pages it evaporates. Aside from being aesthetically unpleasing to look at, the build up ofhard water residue can result in the clogging of valves, drains and piping. This build up is merely theaccumulation of the minerals dissolved in natural water and is commonly called scale.Other than clogging plumbing, the build up of scale poses a large problem in the industrial world. Manythings that are heated are often cooled by water running thru piping. The

The Waters Of Babylon Essay

637 words - 3 pages "By the Waters of Babylon" I. Describe the story's exposition. During the exposition you learn that it is forbidden to go to any of the Dead Places except to search for metal, and he who touches the metal must be a priest of the son of the priest. You also learn that John is the son of a priest and is training to become a priest. II. Describe the story's conflict. The conflict of the story is that John must over

The Waters Of Castle Rock Essay

1144 words - 5 pages . Jack assumes that the environment is a suitable place to live, equipped with fresh water and safety, where as Ralph believes that without the fire, rescue will never come if they stay. William Golding is able to develop this atmosphere through his intricate writing. First of all, Golding uses a variety of carefully selected words to create the atmosphere of danger. In the phrase "the waters went, whispering like the wind", the word "whispering

The Science Of Chemistry Essay

811 words - 4 pages The Science Of Chemistry Alyssa Funes Bell Gardens Intermediate ' . There are many different types of sciences. Every type is important. Some sciences were actually created by other sciences. Chemistry is one of the main sciences that actually was the building block for other sciences like Biology. Chemistry does not only happen at school. Chemistry is all around us it's in our everyday life. Chemists are life