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The Chernobyl Accident An Epidemiological Perspective Essay

1484 words - 6 pages

INTRODUCTION
The world’s worst nuclear accident happened on April 26, 1986. States of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine has under gone many number of studies of the health effects of radiation from the Chernobyl accident have been conducted in the last 25 years. The main purpose of this report is to analyse the health effects from the invisible radiation. The studies have proven important links between radiation and cancer particularly in relation to the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to high level radiation.
The issues to be discussed will be to analyse the risk management and safety in order to prevent another Chernobyl disaster and to reveal why the world really came to know the name “Chernobyl”. Sever exposure to radiation is untreatable and atrocious, which mainly concern about the cancer and the non-cancer effects.
BODY
Radioactivity refers to the spontaneous emission of a stream of electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay. The effect of high dose of radioactivity is perilous, the blood count changes and within hours to days the immune system is shut down and infections start to show. The gastro intestinal tract is affected and the person has to vomit, other internal organs such as the central nervous system (CNS) are also harmed. Each radiation dose no matter how small can cause cancer; the question is how often this occurs if other diseases can also be attributed to it. According to new studies, the effects of low-level radiation include, genome instabilities, mutations of DNA, malformations and increased cell aging.
The radioactive elements dispersed by Chernobyl are Iodine 131 isotope which has a halftime of eight days, and is stored in the thyroid gland causing thyroid cancer. Caesium 137 is a harmful radiation having a halftime of 30 years which causes cancer and enters the food chain. Strontium 90 which is stored in teeth and bones causing leukaemia. Halftime of 30 years of the Plutonium 239 isotope contaminates water reservoirs causing people to procure cancer.
Cancer effects
Thyroid Cancer
Cancer refers to a disease caused by an uncontrollable division of abnormal cells. Cancer effects such as thyroid cancer, a rare malignancy of the endocrine system mostly in children caused major chaos in Europe particularly in the states of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine which is found in most food that we congest and is converted into thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormones are used to control the metabolism, thus if hormones are not released regularly which testify that there is a thyroid malfunction. The most common of these thyroid conditions are “Hyperthyroid” condition which was one of the most prominent conditions during Chernobyl, which resulted in the thyroid gland working too fast. “Hypothyroid” condition is when the thyroid gland is working too slowly that resulted in weight gain. The thyroid cancer was diffused throughout food...

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