Economics studies the monetary policy of a government and other information using mathematical or statistical calculations (Differences). Classical and Keynesian are two completely different economic theories. Each theory takes its own approach on monetary policy, consumer behavior, and government spending. There are a few distinctions that separate these two theories.
To begin, the Classical Economic Theory was made in the 1700's, which was during and after industrialization. Say's Law, which is the law of the market, is a principle of classical economics that says "supply makes its own demand" (Classical vs. Keynesian). It is supply driven and is also based off of a Laissez-Faire economic market. As we learned in our previous studies, Laissez-Faire means free market, which does not depend on the government. Having little to no government allows individuals to act according to their own self interest in regards to economic decisions.
Government spending is not a major part in the Classical Theory. It is more focused on consumer spending and business investment because they are the most important parts of economic growth. Classical economists believe that too much government spending will increase the public sector and decrease the private sector where wealth is created. This theory is mainly focused on making long term solutions to economic problems. Classical economists also take into consideration how new theories and current policies will effect, negatively or positively, the free market environment (Differences).
In contrast, the Keynesian Economic Theory was presented in the 1930's, during the Great Depression, by a man named John Maynard Keynes (Classical vs. Keynesian). It relies on spending and aggregate demand which makes this theory demand driven. These economists believe that aggregate demand is influenced by public and private decisions. The public means the government, and the private means individuals and businesses. Aggregate demand sometimes affects production, employment, and inflation. When the economy starts to slack, they rely on the government to build it back up.
Keynesian economists, similar to Classical economists, also believe that the economy is made up of consumer spending, government spending, and business investments. However, the Keynesian Theory says government spending can improve economic growth in the absence of consumer spending and business investment (Differences). According to the Keynesian theory, wages and prices are not flexible. A static price will give a horizontal aggregate supply curve in the short run (Classical and Keynesian Economics).
The main goal of the government stimulus was to save and create jobs almost immediately. This was the job of the American Recovery...