In 1945, most of the countries around the world are devastated further to World War II which had stroke the globe for six years. Only the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, also called USSR, seem to be in a stable economic situation despite weighty losses. Both states are considered to be the great winners of the war and this is the beginning of a confrontation between two superpowers but also the confrontation between two distinct ideologies: communism and capitalism.
With the shock of two destructive world wars and then the creation of the United Nations, whose aim is to preserve peace, it is unconceivable for these two nations to fight directly in order to promote their own ideology. But the US and the USSR end up to be in competition in numerous ways, particularly in technological and industrial fields. In the same time they start to spread their influence over their former allies. This phenomenon have led to the creation of a bipolar world, divided in two powerful blocs surrounded by buffer zones, and to the beginning of what we call the Cold War because of the absence of direct conflicts between the two nations.
In order to spread their influence and promote their ideologies, the United States and the Soviet Bloc have mainly used two strategies: expansionism, which aim to get the stranglehold on as many places possible and containment, which is used so as to restrict the territorial growth of the opposite camp. But these strategies have led to murderous conflicts and endless wars in some territories, especially in Asia. Finally, it appears that these strategies were at the origin of a significant competition and a rise of palpable tensions all over the world.
From the outset of the post-war period, tensions appeared between the two leaders of the Second World War, the US and the USSR. Stalin who was at the head of the Soviet Bloc had the desire to spread his authority upon Eastern European countries, including specifically Rumania and Poland. This territorial growth, qualified of expansionism, provoked an answer from the US called the strategy of containment also named The Truman Doctrine after the American president Harry Truman who adopted it, elaborated by the American diplomat and political adviser George F. Kennan.
The US attempted to keep Soviets' power within limits, without having a war. Lafeber remarks that the acquisition of control over Poland and Rumania was the beginning of the first tensions with the US (2002, p.18-19). But according to him, the Truman Doctrine was also used in order to justify difficulties by the communist-inspired threat and not by the system itself, so it explains some harmful effects caused by this strategy (2002, p. 63).
However, strategies of expansionism and containment seem to be partly at the origin of the Cold War, defined by the historian Peter Calvocoressi as 'a state of affairs with mutual hostility and fears of the protagonists' (2001, p. 3). Hobsbawm...