This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Community Of Microorganisms That Reside In The Epithelia Of Humans

1150 words - 5 pages

There is a large number of species of microbes found on the human body. This bacterial organism are found in the skin, mouth, or nose. This lab consisted of the collection of skin bacterial organisms and amplification of the 16s rRNA to construct a small molecular phylogeny of the human body microbiome, or the community of microorganisms that reside in the epithelia of humans. This information could only be acquired through processes such as DNA extraction, amplification of specific genetic target by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme digestion, cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vector, transformation and blue/white clone colony screening. Through the phylogenetic tree analysis
Introduction
This lab consisted in the amplification of 16s rRNA gene sequence, PCR based sequencing of forearm bacterial components. The 16s gene is a small subunit of the ribosome with 1500 nucleotides (George, 2013). This 16s rRNA gene sequence has emerged as a preferred technique when analyzing mycobacteria that are isolated (Abbott, 2007). It’s very important because it’s large enough to provide novel pathogens, noncultured bacteria and it can also be used to accurately measure time of evolution, because it has rapidly and slowly evolving regions (George, 2013). It is present in all cells, it has the same function in all cells and it is conserved enough in sequence and structure and accurately aligned. Most importantly there is a large database of aligned sequences available (Abbott, 2007). Skin bacteria also known as skin micro biota are small bacterial organism located in the superficial layer of the epidermis, these bacteria are around 1,000 species from 19 phyla (Todar, 2009). This is a long process that required several steps. The 16s phylogeny gene sequencing methods, included PCR purification and amplification, cloning, ligation, plasmid preparation and sequencing methods. The rRNA genes are amplified via the polymerase chain reaction using primers 27F and 1492R, amplified products are cloned into a plasmid vector, E. coli cells are transformed with the recombinant vectors then individual colonies of transformed E. coli are picked and the plasmids are purified. The purified plasmids are used as a template for the sequencing reaction. The objective of the lab was to learn how to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from a bacteria colony, also be able to run an agarose gel to visualize the resulting PCR amplifications and extract the amplified DNA from the agarose gel.

Methods/Materials
There were several steps used to acquire the colony necessary for the PCR. First a student forearm was swabbed using a cotton swab, the cells were then placed in an agar plate. DNA was then extracted from the cultured bacteria by using a technique to lyse the cells and solubilize the DNA, then enzymes were used to remove contaminating proteins. The DNA extraction consisted...

Find Another Essay On The Community of Microorganisms that Reside in the Epithelia of Humans

The Evolution of Modern Humans Essay

2133 words - 9 pages Human history has been traced back thousands and tens of thousands of years to the great apes. The evolution of modern humans as they are known today can be linked to and possibly attributed to the ancestors, great apes. It could be said that without great apes, humans today would not be the same. After all, humans and great apes share 99% of the same genome. Now these ancestors are in danger, they face extinction. Not only one species of great

The Evolution of Modern Humans Essay

3549 words - 14 pages microscopes and can tell how old they are by rows of enamel, what gender they were and what they likely ate. Paleoanthropologists have also found many new specimens and various species that give us a better understanding of what these hominids may have been like. Some research that goes hand in hand with understanding these early humans is on the question of whether or not, and if so what, emotions they may have had (See Table 2). (Scott et al, 2005

The replicants of Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner show more humanity that the humans

918 words - 4 pages The replicants of Ridley Scott's Blade Runner show more humanity that the humans. Do you agree? Support your discussion with detailed examples of cinematic technique and directorial choice to show how this was achieved. Blade Runner is a film that explores the future of mankind and the gradual loss of humanity through technological advancement and hubris. In particular, the film examines different elements of human nature and what it means to

The Source and Cause of Violent Tendencies in Humans

4129 words - 17 pages The Source and Cause of Violent Tendencies in Humans Philosophers since the beginning of time have debated over the source and cause of violent tendencies in humans that in turn produce global conflicts, to solve the age old question, man or beast? Global conflict can with out a doubt be completely accredited to the human race, but what are the particular reasons for humans to cause such conflicts? There are many topics that have been argued

Superiority Complex in Humans: War of the Worlds

2411 words - 10 pages H. G. Wells, author of the science fiction novel The War of The Worlds, used irony and foreshadowing to portray the theme that humans have a superiority complex that makes them think they have control and that they are the superior race. H. G. Wells is often regarded as the father of modern science fiction. Herbert George Wells was born in Bromley, in the south of England on September 21, 1866. Wells was not born into a wealthy family. Sarah

The Importance of Eye Contact in Healthy Humans

2500 words - 10 pages ) but focused on the effects of forced eye contact during question answering. Both the ASD and control group struggled to give correct responses to questions when forced to engage in eye contact, suggesting that the magnitude of information and visual cues provided by the eyes ‘hog’ an individual’s attentional resources and the eyes are therefore too distracting. From birth, humans are fascinated by the eyes (Frischen, Bayliss and Tipper

Understanding the Life-Span Development of Humans in Psychology

2767 words - 12 pages impacts human development. Throughout the 1900s, individuals like Jean Jacques Rousseau, claimed that humans develop the way they do because they are genetically pre-programmed. Meaning, the mentality and behavior of a human are all influenced by their genes and they were meant to be a certain way regardless of any type of environmental influence. Others, however, such as John Locke, an English Philosopher in the 1800s, believed that the mind begins as

Confidentiality in the Moral Community of Nursing

1202 words - 5 pages Confidentiality in the Moral Community of Nursing Laabs (2008) stated that nurses require applied ethics to give moral direction while practicing. A moral community is a safe “place where community members are encouraged to bring ethical concerns to light and deal with these in a manner that promotes shared understanding and mutual respect”(Hardingham, 2004). In this paper I will tell you a story of an ethical conflict that I have encountered

Secularism in the View of Religious Community

1027 words - 5 pages . The revolution continued to spread in Europe and thousands of thinkers and scientists who were brave to express opposing theories to religion with rational thought appeared. Then the theories like the theories of Darwin, Freud, Existence and Atheism idea that think that God has died and humans are free to make the most of everything. Then the result, religions are marginalized and become secluded, being separated from political affairs and social

The Role of Community in Society

774 words - 3 pages The Role of Community in Society Communities are an essential part of our society, because we all depend and interact with each other. Communities are groups of people that help an individual to learn and develop new ideas. A society is where people’s relations with each other are direct and personal and where a complex web of ties link people in mutual bonds of emotion and

Microorganisms and the Great Potato Famine in Ireland

1020 words - 5 pages Microorganism means small organism which is often referred to as a microbe. A microbe is a single-cell organism which is so tiny that millions can fit into the eye of a needle. Microbes are known to be the oldest form of live on Earth, they can live individually or cluster together in communities. Microbes live everywhere. Anywhere you can think of, microbes live. They can be found in the air, soil, water and are present in and on our own body

Similar Essays

Endophytic Microorganisms That Redise On The Tissues Of Living Plants

2616 words - 10 pages ’-methyl-2’,3’-dihydrofuran-3’-il (hydroxy) methyl-4-isopropyl-3-methyl-2-pyran-2-on). Compund 1 is not new compound, but it is new for endophitic fungus from Curcuma zeodoria and compound 2 is new compound. Endophytic microorganisms that redise in the tissues of living plants and may produce secondary metabolites of biologically active [1]. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, anticancer compound are only a few examples of what

A Model For The Evolutionary Dynamics Of Cross Feeding Polymorphisms In Microorganisms

2136 words - 9 pages Abstract Understanding mechanisms of evolutionary diversification is central to evolutionary biology. Microbes constitute promising model systems for observing processes of diversification directly in the laboratory. One of the main existing paradigms for microbial diversification is the evolution of cross-feeding polymorphisms, in which a strain specializing on a primary resource coexists with a cross-feeding strain that specializes on a

The Controller Of Humans Essay

1260 words - 6 pages cerebral cortex has hemispheres that have an outer convoluted layer of grey matter. Underneath the cerebral cortex, a layer of white matter exists. In this part of the brain, it is estimated to be 10 billion nerve cells. The hemispheres are two halves of the cerebrum linked by corpus callosum (Dictionary of Biology, 2004). Frontal lobe is extremely important for humans. The frontal lobe helps humans control decision making, problem solving, and

Types Of Microorganisms Essay

1363 words - 6 pages Earth is surrounded by organisms which have independent roles to maintain various life processes. Microorganisms can be defined as living things that are invisible to our naked eyes and found abundantly in our environments. On the basis of ribosomal RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequencing, microorganisms are divided into three phylogenetically distinct domains, which has included the Archaea, the Bacteria and the Eukarya (Madigan, Martinko, Stahl