Genetics began with the Gregor Johann Mendel’s work with pea plants in 1866. Mendel described what is known as Mendelian Inheritance. Genetics in medicine began with the rediscovery of Mendel’s laws of inheritance early in the 20th century. During the next 100 years, medical genetics grew to become a recognized medical specialty, which encompasses important components of diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Genomic medicine pursues to implement a large-scale analysis of human genome, includes analysis of the gene expression regulation, human gene variation, and interactions between genes and the environment, to advance medicine. The completion of the Human Genome Project helped expand the our knowledge of genomic medicine. The Human Genome Project is the “international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings.” (http://www.genome.gov/12011238) The success of this project allows for the study of the human genome as a whole rather than a single gene at a time.
The Human Genome Project allows for the identification of all human genes, the determination of the extent of variation in these genes in different population, and the understanding of how these variations contribute to heath and disease. The completion of this project has revolutionized the understanding of medical genetics and is providing insight into the development of diagnostic tools, preventative methods and treatment options. As a result of the Human Genome Project, genetics is rapidly becoming a crucial aspect of medical practice.
The human genome is made up of deoxyribose nucleotides or DNA. DNA is a polymeric nucleic acid macromolecule made up of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and a phosphate group. The nitrogen containing bases fall under two categories, purines and pyrimidines. In DNA, the two purines are adenine and guanine, and the two pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. Each nucleotide, the building blocks of DNA, are composed of a base, a phosphate, and a sugar. The nucleotides are then...