The Condemnation of Galileo
The condemnation of Galileo by the Catholic Church is a prime example of the vast dispute between religion and science. It is widely believed that his support of Copernicanism, the theory that the earth rotates on its own axis, led to his condemnation by the Catholic Church. However, modern historians disagree with this belief and as a matter of fact they do not believe that indeed there is warfare between religion and science. Under the content of condemnation of Galileo are subjects such as Copernicanism, Eucharist, Popes Paul 5 and atomism.
Galileo’s idea of atomism conflicts with the church‘s definition of the Eucharist. According to the church, bread and wine represent flesh and blood of Jesus Christ. Aristotle’s theory, stating that the material of bread and wine changes but the quality does not, was used to affirm the Eucharist. In 1612, Galileo openly criticized Aristotle, saying his ideas were wrong and ridiculed Christopher Scheiner, a Jesuit scientist, over the idea of sunspots. These actions led to his widespread condemnation by the Roman Catholic Church. It was also observed that although Galileo had revealed that Aristotle’s ideas were inconsistent, he did not prove Copernican ideas that he readily supported. As a result, Pope Paul V warned and ordered Galileo to immediately stop supporting Copernican ideas.
Moreover, Pope Urban had affirmed that God had limited man’s understanding of the universe but Galileo had different thoughts. According to him, God gave man the explicit mandate to reason and discover the world. This statement was contrary to the belief that the Pope was not supposed to be disputed but Galileo had just done that. He was thus arrested and after trial, he was found guilty of fervent mistrust of heresy. Galileo’s condemnation was basically about him being against Aristotelian science, which the church ardently believed in.
2. The Radical Reformation (The Anabaptist Portion of the Reformation)
Reformation in sixteenth century is mostly associated with the Lutheran Protestants, Roman Catholics and the radicals who are identified to be historians. The radical group is further divided into three subgroups, which are the Socinians, the spiritualist and Anabaptists. The basic focus of this paper is the radical Anabaptists’ portion of the Reformation.
The phrase “Anabaptists” means to be baptized again and members of this group are referred to as radicals because of their intrinsic desire for thorough church reconstruction in line with their own theological convictions.
It is ostensible that Thomas Muntzer engineered the inception of the Anabaptists. His main objective was to introduce this new faith to mankind all over the world and ultimately form a democratic theocracy. However, before he could fully execute his plan, some people began questioning the authenticity of his pastorate. They felt that his pastorate was not official in the sense that he was not lawfully ordained...