The industrial Revolution, starting in late 18th century, had a significant urbanizing effect. Industrialization is the basic driving force of urbanization and urbanization, cities, are the important land for industrialization. Industrialization and urbanization are just like brothers that grow and develop together and developed each other (Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, 1997). Industrialization is the initiator of urbanization and urbanization is the inevitable result of industrialization. The inventions of railroad tracks, automobiles, telephones, airplanes and electricity are a part of industrialization and the growth of cities, urbanization, during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Urbanization occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to cut time and cost in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities allows individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition. People began moving into cities to seek economic opportunities.
In rural areas, often on small family farms, it is difficult to improve one's standard of living beyond basic necessities. Farm living is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence, survival becomes extremely problematic. Cities, in contrast, are known to be places where money, services and wealth are centralized. Cities are where fortunes are made and where social mobility is possible.
Businesses that produce jobs and capital are usually located in in urban areas. Tourism and trade in cities are the main source of foreign money in a country. The city life is ideal for people who want to make money quick or want to venture into business. In cities there are better basic services as well as other specialist services that aren't found in rural areas. There are more job opportunities and a greater variety of jobs.
These conditions are increased during times of change from a pre-industrial society to an industrial one (www.bbc.com, 2002). It is at this time that many new commercial businesses were made possible, which created new jobs and opportunities. This transformation is called industrialization, which is the process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a pre industrial society into an industrial one. The Industrial period also brought upon many factories. During this period many factories were built due to production demand. The new factories created new jobs which forced many to migrate into the city for work . For many workers, the commute from the countryside or outskirts of the city was too far or too expensive, so many early factory workers moved to live within close proximity of the factory, some even living in work dormitories within the factories themselves.