The Effect Of Concentration Of Enzyme And Enzyme Substrate On The Rate Of An Enzyme Catalysed Reaction

3271 words - 13 pages

This experiment will be an investigation into enzyme activity. Wherever enzymes are used one has to bear in mind that there are various factors which affect the enzyme activity.I will be investigating how different concentrations of the enzyme catalase affect the rate at which hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water and oxygen. In order of doing this different concentrations of liquid catalase that is gained from dried yeast will be added to a fixed volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide for a fixed time length.Enzymes are protein molecules that function as catalysts, that is they can speed up a chemical reaction while not being transformed in that reaction. They work by lowering the activation energy of a chemical reaction. In order to bring to reactants together, energy has to be expended. Enzymes lower that energy barrier. When discussing enzyme catalyzed reactions, the participants in the reaction are called the substrates.Enzyme exert their effect on chemical reactions by providing a place for thesubstrates to interact and in some cases by introducing strain in the substrate molecules. Enzymes are proteins which have a complex three dimensional structure (tertiary structure). Somewhere within the structure is a place where the substrate or substrates can interact with the enzyme; this is called the active site and the structure formed by the interaction is called the enzyme-substrate complex.One important characteristic of enzymes is that they are specific. Because of the structure of the active site, only one substrate or a group of structurally related substrates can interact with a given enzyme. This means that there must be an enzyme for each reaction that the cell needs to perform. Conversely, if the cell does not contain an enzyme that can interact with a particular substrate, that substrate will not be converted into products by that particular cell.Enzyme-catalyzed reactions are also sensitive to environmental factors. Since many enzymes contain acidic or basic amino acids at the active site, they can be affected by pH. Enzyme reactions will demonstrate an optimum pH that is the pH at which the reaction is the fastest. If the pH departs from the optimum, the reaction rate will decrease.At extreme pH's, the enzyme activity will be lost due to denaturation.Temperature also affects enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, like that of any chemical reaction, will increase with increasing temperature. This is because collisions between substrate and active site happen more frequently at higher temperatures due to faster molecular motion.However, above a certain temperature, the reaction rate will decrease due to denaturation of the enzyme.I would expect from this reaction as the concentration of the enzyme catalase is increased that the amount of oxygen produced would increase, too. This is because catalase speeds up the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Catalase exerts the...

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