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The Continuing Foreign Control Over Much Of China, And Ever Increasing Influence Of Japan Doomed China For A State Of Political And Social Destress From 1911 To Communist Victory Of 1914

1125 words - 5 pages

On January first, 1912 the Republic of China was established, signaling the end of the Manchu-dominated Qing Empire. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang, was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. However, Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who had defected to the revolutionary cause, soon forced Sun to step aside and took the presidency for himself. For the years to come up until the Communist Victory in 1949, the Country of China was faced with various levals of policital distress. Increasing pressure from neighbour Japan, as well as the selfish betrayal of the Republics well being by political leaders Yuan Shikai and Chiang Kaishek lead to a testing time for the Country.Thanks to strong military backup, Yuan was officially swarn in as President of the Chinese Republic on the 10th of October 1913. He had gradually dissolved the provincial and national paliaments thus leaving him the unchallanged dictator of China. Yuan was The President of the Republic of China for a short period of time, due to his death at age fifty-six of Kidney failture on June 6th 1915. Athough he was head of the Republic for around three years, This period of time was a major factor in China's social and political destress starting with World War One and The Twenty One Demands from their neighbouring island Japan.During The First World War only Japan had joined the war with the Allies against Germany and Austria-Hungry, thus meant Japan was in a position to seize the concessions that Germany had in China.Yuan Shi-kai was anxious to establish himself as an emperor and thorght the support of Japan would help him reach his goals. When Japan fronted the Twenty One Demands in 1915 he accepted the main demands, resulting in nationwide protest. The Chinese people were outraged when Yuan accepted , many people would have rathered go to war with Japan, and Yuan continued to lose popularity.The Japanese government had planned to take large areas of China under control. Some of The Twenty One Demands presented by the Japanese government were control of many of Chinas factories, railways and ports and threterned war on China if the demands were refused.Yuan died shortly after accepting some of Japans proposed demands. The nation was shortly afterwards in dispair. Under Japanese influence new industries had developed in the cities where thousands of men, women and children worked for long hours with low wages.After Yuan's downfall and death, China was politically fragmented, with an internationally-recognized, but virtually powerless, national government seated in Beijing. The newly formed Peking Government had little control over the nation as a whole, and China collapsed into a state of anarchy. Power fell into the hands of local military commanders, soon to be known as Warlords. Warlords in various regions exercised actual control over their respective territories.The warlords ruled their regions by force of arms. Conditions for China's millions of peasents worsened during the...

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