This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Contribution Of Patient Case Studies On Our Understanding Of Cognitive Processes

2195 words - 9 pages

Although it shares cognitive neuroscience’s roots, cognitive neuropsychology has developed into a discrete discipline. While cognitive neuroscience studies neural organisation of the brain, cognitive neuropsychology concerns itself with the brain’s functional architecture; Coltheart (2010) describes this as a distinction between brain and mind. According to, among others, Coltheart (2002, cited Coltheart, 2010) this makes cognitive neuropsychology a branch of cognitive psychology rather than neuroscience.

Patient case studies have played a critical role in developing cognitive neuropsychology into a separate discipline, although data from case studies can support and even progress cognitive neuroscientific findings about neural architecture. Cognitive neuroscientific research has identified dorsal and ventral visual pathways (e.g. Shapley, 1995, cited Pike and Edgar, 2010) in the brain, known respectively as the ‘where’ and the ‘what’ pathways. A case study of patient DF by Milner and Goodale (1995, cited Pike and Edgar, 2010) found impairment in face and object recognition and visual discrimination, suggesting damage to the ventral pathway. When asked to pick up a small disc, the width of which she could not judge, the distance between DF’s index finger and thumb correlated highly with the actual disc width, suggesting that she was able to guide action using size information unavailable to conscious report. Milner and Goodale went on to develop the ventral/dorsal dissociation theory by suggesting that the ventral ‘what’ pathway processes object recognition while the dorsal ‘where’ system drives action in relation to an object (Goodale and Milner, 1992; Milner and Goodale, 1995, both cited Pike and Edgar, 2010). Thus a patient case study built on a theory about neural structure to develop a theory about cognitive processes.

Initially patients with brain damage were studied with the aim of understanding and treating their disorder. This was the case for Phineas Gage, who developed behavioural changes after a tamping iron passed through his brain in 1848 (Harlow, 1868, cited Jansari, 2010). However, progress in the field of cognitive psychology has enabled the development of complex theoretical models of cognitive function and improved research techniques. Advances in technology have given researchers the tools to view damaged brains before death and compare them to normally functioning, intact brains. As a result, a more challenging aim of cognitive neuropsychology has emerged: understanding and explaining normal cognitive processes. This is achieved by studying a deficit in cognitive function in a brain-damaged patient and making inferences about intact cognition. For example, Shallice and Warrington’s (1970, cited Hitch, 2010) investigation of patient KF with acquired brain damage showed that he had an impaired auditory digit span but normal intelligence and performance in long-term learning and memory and understanding spoken language....

Find Another Essay On The Contribution of Patient Case Studies on our Understanding of Cognitive Processes

Understanding of the Treadway Case Essay

1522 words - 7 pages level.The operational budgets of the each department will need review. By looking at the expected daily production rates in comparison with the staffing requirements and processes, there may be disparity in the number of shift foremen per employee number. Is the 12-hour shift format the same for all 8 Treadway plants or is it just the Lima plant? If yes, is the shift format effective or ineffective? Since taking on the workload of the closed

The Effects of Staffing on Patient Care

1849 words - 8 pages The Effects of Staff Ratio on Patient Care A common problem today that many nurses face is the lack of staff to properly care for the residents in the long-term facility that they work in. When a nurse is forced to work short on the floor, there may be some details in a resident’s care that are left undone. This type of behavior can lead to minor problems, such as the inability to ensure a resident’s personal body alarm is in place, or

The Effects of Staffing on Patient Care

1803 words - 8 pages , competition for talent is becoming more heated in several parts of the country,” (Stanford, 2013). By nurses taking on jobs in other areas of the field, we are left to find people to replace them and when that happens, it creates a shortage on the front line of patient care. The literature, “The Unintended Consequences of Staffing Mandates in Florida Nursing Homes: Impacts on Indirect-Care Staff,” talk about the effect that staff shortage has on the

Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations. Assess the difference between leadership and management processes

861 words - 3 pages Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.To be successful, a manager must have many qualities, one of which is leadership. The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore be advantageous for a manager to possess a broad understanding of the different theoretic styles of leadership. There are three main types of theory:· Trait Theories

Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations. Assess the difference between leadership and management processes

980 words - 4 pages Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.Anybody can learn the finer points of management and how and when to implement them, follow policy and do things by the book, however this does not guarantee a manager's success. To be successful, a manager must have many assets, one of which is leadership.The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore

The Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society

3253 words - 13 pages The Contribution of Functionalist Sociology to an Understanding of the Role of Education in Society Functionalists have constructed two questions to help them research education. The first question is. "What are the functions of education for society as a whole?" and the second question is. "What are the functional relationships between the education system and other parts of the social system". Firstly

Year 11 legal studies oral on the case of Mr. Wayne Kelvin V. The People

1293 words - 5 pages If your honor pleases my name is WHITE initial A and I appear before the court for Mr. Wayne Kelvin Lavender. Mr. Lavender is the respondent in this case after the queen, wishing to upgrade my client's sentence from criminal negligence resulting in manslaughter to murder, lodged an appeal.I seek leave to approach the bench with my submission.The Facts of the case are clear, the case involved manslaughter and alleged criminal negligence by my

Studies of Stress on the Body

1027 words - 5 pages this reduces our ability to cope with stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a mild stressor on a specific biological response. Using previous studies, the candidates who are being stressed should leave with elevated pulses, and should be sweating.

Criticisms on the studies of world history

2250 words - 9 pages of its European perspective. However, Wallerstein changed the historian community because of his “analysis of the political and economic relationships between the regions” resulted in a better understanding of integration in world history. Dirlik, like Wallerstein, focuses on the transformation of capitalism and economic development. Using his studies as a political agenda, he argued that world history “naturalizes capitalist globalization by

Stress and Thriving regarding an article "Stress Related Growth and Thriving Through Coping: The Roles of Personality and Cognitive Processes

813 words - 3 pages outlook instead of thinking of stress as only a negative factor in people's lives. .The first article, "Stress-Related Growth and Thriving Through Coping: The Roles of Personality and Cognitive Processes", examines the psychological factors that play a part of people coping with stress. For a long time, the focus of stress on people focused almost exclusively on the negative outcomes from stressful encounters. In this article, growth is referring to a

Labelling Theories' Contribution to the Sociological Understanding of Crime and Deviance

1575 words - 6 pages Labelling Theories' Contribution to the Sociological Understanding of Crime and Deviance Becker is the main sociologist studying labelling theory on deviance, he argues that 'social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance.' Meaning acts only become deviant when observers perceive it and define it as deviant. An example of this would be the act of nudity, it is accepted in the

Similar Essays

The Contribution Of Split Brain Studies To Our Understanding Of Brain Functioning

1349 words - 5 pages acknowledged in split brain patients as cognitive abilities vary significantly. Experiments pioneered by Sperry and colleagues on split- brain patients have undoubtedly contributed to and deepened our understanding of functional laterality. Studying split-brain patients is a growing phenomenon in today’s day and age and has stimulated groundbreaking findings yet contentious ones. If anything, crucial it is to acknowledge that the brain serves many

Critically Examine The Contribution Of Jean Piaget To Our Understanding Of Child Development

1317 words - 5 pages gradually. He never identified a stage beyond formal operations and he believed that most people show at least some signs of the highest level of intellect by ages 15 to 18. Later in his career Piaget suggested that perhaps nearly all adults are capable of reaching reasoning at a formal level, but do so only on problems which are of interest or importance to them.This essay has examined the contribution of Jean Piaget to our understanding of child

The Contribution Of A Biological Perspective To Our Understanding Of Behaviour

1427 words - 6 pages The Contribution of a Biological Perspective to our Understanding of Behaviour The importance of Biology within the field of psychology has been and continues to be widely debated. Some scientists such as Francis Crick, believe that explanations for psychological differences can only be found by the means of studying the biology of the brain and genes, this belief is known as reductionism. However most

Understanding The Theory Of Cognitive Dissonance

1617 words - 6 pages reduction is denying the existence of the conflict or denying the existence of an behavior/belief that conflicts with a primary behavior/belief, giving merit to the common expression ‘Ignorance is bliss’. Festinger found that dissonance reduction was as essential to his theory on cognitive dissonance as understanding the nature cognitive dissonance itself (Festinger, 1957). Festinger began his work on his theory of cognitive dissonance by studying