Sir Isaac Newton was a profound mathematician and physicist, one of the primary scientificintellects of all time. For almost 300 years, Newton has been known as the leader in scientific achievements of modern physical science as well as mathematical research. Dedicated to learning and experimenting, Newton also plunged into chemistry, early history of Western Civilization and theology, and a concentration of special studies in forms and dimensions, which also included Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
On Christmas day in 1642, Newton was born to a widowed farming mother. In 1664 while still a student, Newton studied optics and light. He investigated the refraction of light by a glass prism, which led to discovering measurable mathematical patterns in the phenomenon of color (1). He found white light to be a mixture of infinitely varied colored rays, each ray identifiable by the angle that it is refracted on entering or leaving a given translucent medium. Newton also correlated this experiment with his study of the interface of colors on thin films, such as oil and soap bubbles. He used a simple technique of measuring the thickness of each film used (2).
This experiment of optics and light were widely unaccepted by many scientists. Newton'sexperiments were thought to be unconventional because they went against the previous ideas of optics and light. The skepticism of Christian Huygnes and Edme Mariotte's failure to duplicated Newton's experiments set other scientists on the European Continent against Newton for a generation.
Newton's showed early intellect in mathematics through his notes in school. Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics, but mainly discovered solutions to contemporary problems in analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves and defining areas bounded by curves (3). Newton not only discovered that these problems were opposite of each other, but also revealed general methods of resolving problems of curvature (4). Late in life, Newton apologized for the algebraic style of recent mathematical progress. He favored the classical geometrical method of the Greeks because of its clarity and rigor (5).
Newton also made extreme progress in physics. According to the well-known story, Newton witnessed an apple falling from a tree in his orchard. From this he conceivedan idea in his mind that the same force that governs the Moon could also, control the apple. Newton then calculated the force needed to hold the moon in its orbit comparing it to the force that pulls an object to the ground. He furthered his experiment to include calculations from the centripetal force equation and the pendulum-sling relationship. Thus, this began the experimentation of gravity and the development of the laws of gravity. While working with John Hooke, Newton redirected his experiment to the problem of the path of a body subjected to a centrally directed force that varies as the inverse square of the distance. Newton determined...