The Da Vinci Surgical System Essay

1611 words - 6 pages

The da Vinci Surgical System is a computer enhanced system that replicates a surgeon’s movements using mechanical arms that hold electromechanical instruments. The name is based on Leonardo Da Vinci, who designed a humanoid automaton in 1495, and worked with anatomical design (Intuitive Surgical, 2005). This system is also referred to as a telemanipulator robot, which means “master-slave.” The surgeon, or “master,” is seated at a console away from the bedside and can view the surgical field, in real time, through an endoscope. The surgeon can be seated either in the room, or over long distances. The da Vinci, or “slave” is not programmed, nor can it make decisions to perform any type of surgical maneuver on its own (Davies, 2006). It is solely controlled by the movements of the surgeon. This system is composed of 4 parts: surgeon's console, surgical cart, vision tower, and endowrist instruments. The console is the control unit for the rest of the system. It interprets the view of the surgical site into a three dimensional image that is displayed in front of the surgeon's eyes. The surgical cart is the actual robot at the bedside that performs the surgery. The robot has three arms, two of these hold the instruments and the other holds the camera. The vision tower handles the two channeled images and processes the connection between the camera and the monitor. The endowrist instruments that are attached to the arms give extra degrees of freedom that increase the surgeon’s hand capabilities. This provides the opportunity to perform complex surgeries through tiny incisions. The da Vinci is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for several procedures and is currently being used in the United States and eighteen other countries (FDA, 2008). There are 916 systems in use throughout the United States, 221 in Europe, and an additional 105 in the rest of the world (Intuitive Surgical, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to research the issues surrounding the use of this technology in the operating room, expanding on nursing roles, its benefits, and drawbacks (Tabor, 2007).
Background
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was introduced in the early 1980s to avoid complications derived from open surgery. Some of the complications addressed were larger incisions and longer periods of recovery time in the post operative units. At the time of this development, built in camera-instruments were introduced. These instruments are known as endoscopes or laproscopes. The surgeon viewed the field through these scopes which displayed a two-dimensional image. The surgeon had to estimate the target of the anatomy because this two-dimensional drawback did not provide the surgeon with accurate depth perception. Also, these early surgical instruments were rod-like, with no wrist movement and required the surgeon to move his arms in large scale movements. The ergonomics for the surgeons lacked and in return, they would fatigue easily. The...

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