A smart grid (SG) is an intelligent electricity network that integrates the actions of all users that are connected to it and make use of advanced information, control, and communication technologies in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies . The high-speed, bi-directional, real-time, and integrated communications system is the foundation of SG . In addition to counting and pricing in smart metering, one of its most prominent requirements is to support users in smart energy utilization. Therefore, residential and enterprise consumers have to be enabled by the SG infrastructure to become aware of their energy consumption behavior.
Automated metering is one of the subsystems of SGs and plays a major role in SG infrastructure and wireless applications . The automated meter reading (AMR) are featured to calculate the energy expenditure by an automated metering infrastructure (AMI) subsystem application and to improve the reliability of the current energy sys- tem. AMI system is a combination of three elements: smart meters (SMs), a metering communication infrastructure, and a meter data management (MDM) system .
A SM is an electrical device, which is mostly deployed at the customer’s premises and is used to collect energy usage, power outage, and quality notification and it sends the data collected to the utility company for billing . Real-time power consump- tion measurement is the key element that offers benefits to the customer as it enables to make more informed decisions about the consumer energy consumption, adjusting both when they use electricity and how much they use. An MDM system not only performs data storage but also manages the vast quantities of data that are delivered by various smart metering systems. The basic function of the MDM system is to import the data, validate, and process it before making it available for the billing and other analytical research .
The communication infrastructure in SG must support the expected SG functional- ities and meet the performance requirements. As the infrastructure connects an enor- mous number of electric devices and manages the complicated device communications, it is constructed in a hierarchical architecture with interconnected individual subnet- works and each taking responsibility of separate geographical regions . Some of the key communication networks in enabling SGs are long term evolution (LTE) and wireless sensor network (WSN). LTE is considered a strong candidate for handling SM communication as it provides ubiquitous wide area coverage, high availability and strong security . The LTE network will provide faster and more accurate use, load and disruption information, which will help utility companies to plan and manage their resources. The WSN represents a good candidate to be adopted as the communication solution for the last mile connection in process monitoring and control applications . Further, WSNs have been...