To the ongoing question as to how humans evolved has still been a debate over several decades. Homo sapiens is a scientific name given to humans. Homo sapiens are classified under the kingdom-Animalia, phylum-chordata, class-mammalia, order-primates, family-Hominidae, genus-Homo and species-sapiens. According to Linnaeus Carlos, scientific way of classifying living organisms (Relethford, 2010). According to Relethford, Hominin is a tribe that comprises of humans and their closest ancestor. Hominin family has shown some resemblances with the evidences collected from fossil records as well as the evolutionary processes to the mordern humans. This article will try to describe the evolution of homonin tribe from the time period of Homo habilis to Mordern Homo sapiens. It will emphasis on the cranial capacity “skull proportions”, tools used and the cultural behavior.
Homo habilis species was first found in East Africa at the Olduvai George site, approximately 1.9- 1.4 million years ago (Spoor et al. 2007). This species was also known as “Handy man” or “able man”. Homo habilis had a smaller brain of about 630 C.C. compared to living humans today (Relethford, 2010). Post cranial skeleton show similarities to Austrapiths and an evidence to bipedalism however, they retained climbing abilities ( McHenry 1992). The simple stone tools found associated with Homo habilis were referred to as Oldowan tools. There is still no clear evidence whether these species relied on scavengers left by the carnivores or did they associate themselves in hunting by the use of the stone tools ( Relethford, 2010).
Apart from Homo habilis, Homo erectus was also found in East Africa around 1.9 million years ago (Relethford, 2010). Homo habilis had more primitive features to Australopithecus compared to Homo erectus. However, since they are dated to nearly the same time period, it was suggested that they followed an evolution model called “cladogenesis” where one species evolves while the parental isn’t extinct (Spoor et al. 2007). This species was also known as “Upright walking Human” with a cranial capacity of 930 C.C. slightly lower than living humans (Relethford, 2010). The slight increase of the brain size, show a transition towards the evolution of modern Homo sapiens. Homo erectus had a modern skeleton which was fully adapted to bipedalism.
The evidence of bipedalism was associated with the foreman mangos, a hole at the base of the skull where spinal cord enters (Relethford, 2010). However, postorbital constriction narrowness of the skull behind the eyes is a characteristic seen in early primates but, absent in humans. Brow ridges above the eyes as well as the sagittal kneel behind the skull show primitive character (Wolpoff 1999; Boaz and Ciochon 2004). Two well-known fossils of Homo erectus where given names as Turkana boy and Peking man found in Kenya,Africa and Zhokoudian, China respectively (Relethford, 2010). The stone tools found associated with Homo...