The Development Of Nanotechnology Essay

637 words - 3 pages

The word “Nanotechnology” is defined as the science of working with atoms and molecules to build devices that are extremely small.
At first the concept nanotechnology and describing a mater in molecular or atomic scale spread very slowly. In 1867 James Clerk Maxwell proposed an experiment of small entity named Maxwell’s Demon capable of handling person molecules to show that the second law of thermodynamics has only statistical certainty1. After that Richard Adolf Zsigmondy used the nanometer scale for particle size characterization in 1914. In 1952 at Caltech, Richard Feynman had a talk with the title of ‘There’s A lot of Area at the Bottom’. In his lecture he proposed that direct manipulation of individual atoms is a more powerful method for synthetic chemistry2.
In 1974 the first technical definition of nanotechnology proposed by Norio Taniguchi at Tokyo Science University as processing, separation, consolidation and deformation of supplies by a single atom or molecule3. Later on, in 1980 Eric Drexler proposed the idea of using molecular manufacturing in industries and also originated molecular nanotechnology concepts at MIT. Recognizing atoms of a supply, the manufacturing process of the supply will be significantly shortened; For instance, coal can modify into diamond. Drexler assumed that atoms are like marbles, therefore, molecules are a collection of marbles tight together. If these molecules take apart, they will become standard scale tools like motors that will work the same way as the previous cluster. Eventually, Drexler proposed that these are nanobots that would be utilized as assemblers in order to arrange atoms into any shape4.
In 1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) invented by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Bohrer at IBM Zurich, which was a breakthrough in the science of nanotechnology. This instrument used for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. The best resolution for STM is 0.1 nm lateral and 0.01 nm depth resolution. Buckyball, which is a spherical flurrene molecule...

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