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The Development Of Religious Archetecture In New Kingdom

727 words - 3 pages

The expansion of the political and economical power during the New kingdom, led to the devotion of resources to the religious architecture; numerous new temples were constructed while the pre-existing temples were renovated. Individual Pharaohs endeavored to out do their ancestors, not only in the construction of their own mortuary temples, but also in the establishment of worship temples of their deities. Kings of this period abandoned the pyramid complexity of the earlier ages and constructed their tombs in the Valley of the Kings well away from their mortuary temples due to the increase of robbers; therefore a standardized plan became default for both the worship and mortuary temples. Because of this movement, I believe that the divine and mortuary spheres became entwined in both theory and practice. During the 18th dynasty, temple construction reached its highest point under Amenhotep III and Tuthmosis II; it was the art of the Middle kingdom that they wished to imitate. Hatshepsut temple at Deir el Bahari compared to its neighboring temple of Mentuhotep III, are great examples of the return to ancient architectural resources. ( image 4&5) show the direct inspiration based on the replica of the previous kingdom’s architecture. Some of the imitated elements were the long porticoes with squared pillars rising in terraces, wide ascending ramps, the entrances colonnaded with the sanctuary, the great use of papyrus columns and above all the strict harmony of the building with its setting. Although there was a conscious desire to return to the disciplines of the former period, yet development also took place. The attempt to achieve greater effect of lightness became dominant as well as the extra care given to the decoration and the aesthetic side. The main architectural elements were, the use of less severe geometrical stylization, slenderer proportions, the excessive use of polygonal columns and pylons and finally large open courts entered through portals of gates and doors. It is obvious that during the 18th dynasty the Pharaohs of the time wished to display a flat, stiff entrance, undisturbed by any curved form and at the same time to lighten the interior of narrow porticoes. The...

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