The Differences Betwen Skill, Ability and Technique
There are differences between skill and ability and this links with
technique a term commonly used in sport.
There are many different classifications of skill; it cannot really be
defined as a single thing. It has been said that skill is,
"The ability to perform a technique with consistency and control with
minimum effort." (Galligan 2000).
"Skill is seen as a co-ordinated act involving complex movements
brought together in a consistent and smooth manner." (Sharp 1992)
There are cognitive skills, perceptual skills, motor skills and
perceptual motor skills. Each different skill will use different
muscles and movements to carry out a certain task. Cognitive skills
are also known as intellectual skills because they involve thought and
processes (Galligan 2000). An example of this is adding up runs scored
by a player in cricket. Perceptual skills involve interpreting a
picture or piece of writing. Some people interpret things differently
from others. An example would be a goalkeeper in football assessing
the movement of an opponent approaching. Motor skills are muscles in
the body and involve movement and control, walking, running or hitting
a ball with a bat.
Most skills are referred to as perceptual motor skills, (Galligan
"Performance in sport is an extremely complex process. It does not
just involve one type of skill, but several. Perceptual motor skills
involve thought, interpretation and movement."
Skills can be affected by the weather and surrounding environment,
they can be classified as either open or closed skills.
"Open skills are those in which the form of the action is constantly
being varied according to what is happening around the performer. The
environment is unpredictable." (Davis 2000)
Closed skills are those that have no outside physical influences
acting upon them. They are the same each time they are performed.
Ability is closely linked with skill. In order to learn any skill in
sport we must have the abilities required. They are innate; you are
born with them or they are developed early in life. Without the basic
building blocks or movement vocabulary we will never be able to
develop skill fully (McAdedle 1994). Abilities required to play sport
would be hand eye co-ordination; flexibility and speed without these
you will never become a superstar.
"Technique can sometimes be confused with skill. To perform a
particular skill in sport we must learn the required technique, but in
order to learn the technique fully we must have the necessary
abilities." (Morton 2000).
This equation can be used;
SKILL = ABILITY + TECHNIQUE (Galligan 2000)
In gymnastics a person would have the natural ability i.e. be quite
flexible and would have to learn the correct...