The Division Of Labour In Society By Emile Durkheim

2143 words - 9 pages

Lucrarea lui Emil Durkheim 'Diviziunea muncii sociale' debuteaza prin incercarea de a defini acest concept. Pentru inceput autorul considera ca din moment ce diviziunea muncii mareste capacitatea productiva si abilitatile muncitorilor, ea reprezinta conditia necesara pentru dezvoltarea intelectuala si materiala a societatilor. O alta functie a sa se refera la carcaterul moral deoarece creeaza un sentiment de solidaritate intre doi sau mai multi oameni.Pentru a explica contributia diviziunii muncii la existenta solidaritatii, Durkheim foloseste exemplul unui cuplu casatorit. El sustine ca societatea conjugala ar disparea daca diviziunea muncii intre sexe ar regresa dincolo de un anumit punct, reducandu-se la relatii sexuale. Insa in ceea ce priveste utilitatea economica, diviziunea muncii reprezinta mai mult decat un interes indreptat in acest sens, realizand stabilirea unei ordini morale si sociale sui generis. Durkheim admite ca relatia celor casatoriti se datoreaza de asemenea similaritatilor dintre ei, dar acest lucru se constituie in afara diviziunii muncii.Analogia casatoriei nu poate explica semnificatia diviziunii muncii in societatile dezvoltate. Durkheim sustine ca "marile societati politice nu pot, ele insele, sa se mentina in echilibru decat gratie specializarii sarcinilor, ca diviziunea muncii este sursa...principala a solidaritatii umane"(p. 79). Autorul il aminteste pe Comte, primul care a sesizat ca diviziunea muncii este altceva decat un fenomen pur economic, "repartitia continua a diferitelor sarcini umane constituind in primul rand solidaritatea sociala" (p. 79). Daca diviziunii muncii ii corespunde aceasta functie,ea isi dovedeste caracterul moral datorita nevoilor pe care le indeplineste de solidaritate sociala, ordine, armonie..Cel mai vizibil simbol a solidaritatii sociale este legea prin care viata sociala se organizeaza intr-o forma precisa si stabila. Intrucat toate verietatile esentiale de solidaritate se reflecta in lege, Durkheim clasifica diferitele tipuri de lege pentru a constata ce fel de solidaritate sociala ii corespund. Exista doua tipuri de lege: represiva (dreptul penal) si restitutiva (dreptul civil, comercial, administrativ), care nu implica suferinta din partea celui vinovat, ci consta in restabilirea relatiilor care au deviat de la forma lor initiala normala.Durkheim demonstreaza modul in care legea represiva reflecta o societate caracterizata de solidaritatea mecanica (prin asemanare). Dreptul penal reprezinta conditia principala a vietii colective pentru orice tip de societate si pune in evidenta puterea de rezistenta a sentimentului comun in fata unei crime.Constiinta colectiva consta in totalitatea sentimentelor si convingerilor comune membrilor unei societati care formeaza un sistem determinat cu o viata proprie. Durkheim defineste un act ca fiind criminal atunci cand acesta contrazice constiinta comuna. Un act nu este criminal prin natura sa, ci are acest atribut fiindca incalca opinia publica si...

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