July 21, 1969. American astronaut Neil Armstrong, radios to earth: “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” The control room in Houston, Texas bursts with cheering and applause. Kennedy’s Project Apollo put America in the lead in the Space Race. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States was a very big deal. The Apollo Program worked towards establishing the technology to meet other national interests in space, develop man’s capability to work in the lunar environment, and to promote nationalism and achieve preeminence in space for the United States.
The early missions of Project Apollo were mostly dedicated to the establishment and advancement of technology to meet America’s national interests in space. Apollo missions 1 through 10 were focused on building and testing the Command Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Lunar Module (LM). Altogether the CM and the SM make the Command Service Module, or CSM.
Apollo 1 was to be the first crewed spaceflight in the space project. The Apollo 1 launch was scheduled for February 21, 1967, but on January 27, 1967 the Command Module caught fire during a preflight test launch one month before the projected date of launch. All three astronauts lost their lives in the accident. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White, Roger B. Chaffee were all aboard this spacecraft. This postponed crewed launches until NASA officials cleared them for flight.
Apollo 7 worked to demonstrate command and service module, or CSM, and crew performance; demonstrate crew, space vehicle and mission support facilities performance during a crewed CSM mission; and demonstrate CSM rendezvous capability. Apollo 7 mission was a three man flight as well. All the mission objectives were completed.
Apollo 8 primary objectives included a coordinated performance of the crew, the CSM, and the support facilities. The mission also was to demonstrate translunar injection, a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a path which will allow it to arrive at the Moon; CSM navigation, communications and midcourse corrections; consumable assessment; and passive thermal control. The detailed test objectives were to fix the systems and procedures relating to future lunar operations. All mission objectives were met.
The Apollo 9 primary objectives were to perform an Earth-orbital engineering test of the first crewed lunar module, or LM. other objectives include an overall checking of the launch vehicle and spacecraft systems, the crew, and procedures. This was done by performing a series of flight tasks with the command module, or CM, the service module, or SM, the joined command and service module, or CSM, the LM and S-IVB stage while they were linked in launch or various docked configurations, and while they were flying separate orbit patterns. The LM was to be tested as a self-sufficient spacecraft, and was also to perform active rendezvous and docking maneuvers like those scheduled for the following Apollo...