The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a dangerous virus which has a chance of mortality when infected up to 90%. This makes it one of the most deadly viruses for humans in the world. 1, 2 It does not stop there. Various EBOV outbreaks have fatally infected tens of thousands of chimpan-zees, duikers and gorillas. It those areas it is a great threat to the wildlife.3
EBOV belongs to the order of the nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS)RNA type viruses, the Mononegavirales and it is part of the family Filoviridae. EBOV is a member of the genus Ebolavirus. This genus has five distinct species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, Su-dam ebolavirus, Taï Forest ebola virus and Reston ...view middle of the document...
Also it keeps the structural integrity of the viral particles.12 The other matrix protein, VP24, takes care of the of three major func-tions. First it inhibits interferon signaling. Interferon signaling is the release of proteins by the host cell to communicate to the immune system that there are pathogens present in the host cell. Second in combination with NP and VP35 it takes part of the formation of the nu-cleocapsid and third, it is shown that without VP24 there is far les VP30 in virus-like particles. The last shows VP24 is nessecary for a fully functional nucleocapsid.13
The polymerase cofactor VP35 is a protein in the nucleocapsid that just as VP24, possesses the ability to inhibit interferon signaling.14 Also it probably regulates the transcription and replication.15
VP30 is also in the nucleocapsid and possible has a direct interaction in the transcription of EBOV RNA. Also it probably regulates replication. 15
The RNA Polymerase L protein is a part of the replication and transcription cycle. It is also believed that it regulates the enzymatic activities for replication and transcription
The NP plays an central role in virus replication. Also it is necessary, together with VP24 and VP35, to build nucleocapsid-like structures.6 Although NP is so important for the virus, its exact role is still unknown.
Figure 1:6 A. This is a schematic diagram of EBOV genome The proteins depicted are the three prime untranslated region (UTR), nucleoprotein (NP), the viral proteins (VP) 35 and 40, the glycoprotein (GP), VP30, VP 24, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and the five prime untranslated region.7, 16 The transcription starts at the green triangles and it stops at the red squares. The black arrows mark the overlapping genes. Intergenic regions that vary in nucleotide order and length separate the genes that do not overlap.6 B. An Electron mi-crograph EBOV particle. C. A schematic representation of EBOV. As can been seen, GP is the only protein at the outer layer and therefore it is believed it plays an important role in virus entry.17 There are two matrix proteins: VP40 and VP24. These three proteins are the mem-brane proteins. The other four, L, NP, VP30 and VP35 make up the nucleocapsid
3. Virus Life Cycle
3.1 Entry of the cell
The first step in the viral life cycle is entry of a host cell. EBOV uses endocytosis to entry a cell.18 Endocytosis is a way for a cell to adsorb molecules. There are four types of endocyto-sis. These are Phagocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytoses (CME), caveolae-mediated endo-cytosis (CavME) and macropinocytosis. Previous researches about which pathway EBOV uses gave different pathways can be involved. According to those studies CME, CavME and macropinocytosis are possible pathways to enter the cell.19 Unfortunately these conclusions could be wrong due the use of surrogate models of EBOV that are morphological and...