Student performance is measured by production function. Educational production function is a relationship between the inputs and the outputs of education (Dolan, 1994). It has been generally acknowledged (Dolan, 1994) that income or scores on some standardized tests as a proxy measure of the outputs of education. Educational inputs can be categorized in many categories. In Mood (1969) divided inputs of education into five broad categories; student’s own abilities and attitudes, support of family, community and peers, properties of educational system and society’s posture with respect to education.
This paper uses a student performance framework based on Todd and Wolpin (2000) to determine the economic variables of education production function. Todd and Wolpin (2000) explored the production function for cognitive achievement. They claimed that child development is a cumulative process depending on the history of family, school inputs and innate ability as the following;
Ti = f [Fi, Si, μi, Ɛi]
Ti = achievement for child i
Fi= parent-supplied inputs
Si= school-supplied inputs
μi= child’s ability
Ɛi= measurement error
For interpretation of this equation, Todd and Wolpin (2000) still cannot clearly conclude the exactly effect since proxy variables in the research lead to confound the interpretation. However, there are other papers (Dolton et al, 2001) which found a proper interpretation for the relationship between student performance and the following variables:
Parent-supplied inputs e.g., family income, parent’s education (+):
• When a family has more income, parents can spend more money on education goods for children and thus lead to higher student performance.
• Studying in higher education, parents will have more knowledge for help children understand contents better and thus lead to higher student performance.
School-supplied inputs e.g., class size, teacher experience (+):
• When class size reduces, a number of students per teacher also reduce. Therefore, teacher can more concentrate on students and thus lead to higher student performance.
• If teachers have more experience, they will have a better method to give knowledge to students and thus lead to higher student performance.
Child’s ability e.g., past test scores (+):
• When children have higher test scores, it refers that they have a higher initial ability to achieve in student performance.
Although Todd and Wolpin (2000) used three types of variables to estimate educational production function, this paper uses parent-supplied inputs and child’s ability. The reason why this paper does not use school-supplied inputs to analyze student performance is because Facebook usage is not involving with school and teacher quality.
Methodology and Model