The Effect of Child Abuse on the Emotional Development of the Infant to Five Years Old in the United States
A Review of the Literature
Child abuse is one of the most serious issues in the United States today. Child abuse is the physical, emotional/ psychological or sexual maltreatment of a minor. Neglecting a child is another type of abuse, and includes malnutrition, abandonment, and/or inadequate care of a child’s safety. Additionally, any neglectful act can lead to physical or emotional harm and in some cases death of a child. Unfortunately, young children are the most vulnerable population to child abuse. Statistics indicate that victims in their first year of life had the highest rate of victimization at 21.9 per 1,000 children of the same age in the national population (United State Children’s Bureau, 2013). Additionally, the victimization was highest for children younger than one year 21.9 at per 1,000 children in the population of the same age (United State Children’s Bureau, 2013). Although, the rate of substantiated child abuse and neglect for children ages 13 months through three years old has slightly decreased from 2008 to 2012, the rate of victimization of children younger than age three continues to be of concern (United State Children’s Bureau, 2013). Moreover, 78.3 percent of victims were neglected, 18.3 percent were physically abused, and 9.3 percent were sexually abused (United State Children’s Bureau, 2013). Furthermore, evidence suggests that the main type of abuse that young children experience is neglect. Child abuse has always existed in society and is a major problem in this country that cannot be ignored. Unfortunately, child brutality brings a variety of consequences in a child’s life and affects everyone in society.
Infants, amongst the most susceptible members of communities, are at the maximum risk of all age groups for being reported as having been exposed to child abuse. Abuse at an early age it leads to poor growth, and often results in many maltreated infants, toddlers, and preschoolers presenting with physical, cognitive, emotional, relational, and psychological difficulties (Child Welfare, 2011; Child Protective Service, 2007; Nickla & Mackenzie, 2013), but in general there are many children of all ages that experience different types of abuse by their caregiver. Learning more about this critical subject the victimization rate in 2008 for children in the beginning year of life was about 21.5 per 1,000 infants almost double the rate of the next maximum age grouping (Children’s Bureau, 2013; Child Welfare, 2011; Nickla & Mackenzie, 2013).
Child neglect is the most common, persistent element of child maltreatment. Approximately 78.3 percent of all children are victims of neglect (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2011; Nicklas & Mackenzie, 2013). Neglected children may be present in symptoms of abandonment, hopelessness, submissiveness, and confusion. Moreover, neglected children have difficulty...