The study was conducted in accordance with professor Tom Drury MSN, MBA, RN. Professor Drury approved the study protocol. Written informed consent from all the subjects was obtained (Appendix A). The participants were given an excel spreadsheet numbered 1 - 63 down the left side (Appendix B). Each participant printed his or her name, gender, and age next to a number. This data was used to statistically analyze the data with the number being used to maintain participant’s anonymity. During the analysis of the data, the students’ names were not matched with the scores. There were no identified risks associated with the student’s physical or mental health regarding their participation in this study. The exam grades did not affect any of the student’s DSN grades. After the results were analyzed the exams and excel spreadsheet were kept for a final grade in the research class and then were shredded.
Sampling and Selection of Participants
Quantitative research uses larger numbers of people but is more focused on a specific variable. This study utilized cluster sampling. Cluster sampling is employed for convenience, representing a large population with varying geographic locations. This study utilized undergraduate students (n=57) who were enrolled in their second quarter at Denver School of Nursing (DSN) and divided into two groups. One-half of the participants were designated as the control group whom tested with no background music, and the other half designated as the intervention group whom tested with background music. These subjects were selected based on availability of the Nursing Research classes. The subjects were of traditional university age, ranging 20-42 with a mean age of 26.4. There was a disproportionate gender representation with 50 females and seven males. Participants were given unique identification numbers for administrative purposes while maintaining anonymity.
This was a quantitatively designed study to explain the cause and effect relationships between variables and to test for intervention effectiveness (Meadows, 2003). The study used the after-only experimental design to compare the effect of classical background music on test scores. The independent variable in this study was background classical music versus silence in the testing environment while the dependent variable was multidisciplinary exam scores.
The test was validated by giving twelve students a pilot test to determine whether the instrument actually measured what it was proposed to measure (Appendix C). After the validation was complete, the final test was administered to the control group and the experimental group (Appendix D).
Since classical music covers a wide range of variance, the specific style of Mozart Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K 448 was chosen. This song was selected according to previous studies, which tested the Mozart Effect.
The experiment was conducted at DSN using the students enrolled in their...