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The Effect Of Reading Buddies On Motivation To Read In Low Performing Students With And Without Disabilities

3705 words - 15 pages

Reading is a critical skill that provides a framework for interdisciplinary learning and success throughout one’s schooling and into adulthood. Research indicates that students who are proficient readers also tend to perform well in other domains, such as mathematics and science (Melekoglu, 2011; Valleley & Shriver, 2003). Students who have difficulty reading at the primary level will likely have low achievement outcomes as they progress to the upper grades (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Kazdan, 1999; Melekoglu, 2011). Mastering remedial reading skills becomes increasingly difficult as students move from primary to intermediate grades where the focus shifts from learning how to read to reading for the ...view middle of the document...

, 2012; Strauss & Corbin, 1998; Wigfield and Guthrie, 1997). For the purpose of this study, the author will focus primarily on the affirming motivations identified by Guthrie, et al. (2013) that have been identified as having a positive correlation with reading achievement. These elements are intrinsic reading motivation (i.e., reading for personal enjoyment or interest), self-efficacy (i.e., one’s confidence as a reader), pro-social goals (i.e., having a desire to interact with others through reading), and valuing the importance of reading (Guthrie & Coddington, 2009; Guthrie, et al., 2013).
The significance of reading motivation has been explored in recent years, especially in relation to student achievement and reading competence (Schiefele, et al., 2012; Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008; Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997). Research indicates that intrinsic reading motivation correlates positively with the amount of time spent reading and with reading comprehension; additionally, the amount of time spent reading correlates with reading proficiency (Cox & Guthrie, 2001; De Neaghel, et al., 2012; Guthrie, Van Meter, McCann, & Wigfield, 1996; Guthrie, et al., 1999; Schiefele, et al., 2012). A strong correlation has been displayed between reading motivation and overall reading abilities (McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth, 1995; Melekoglu, & Wilkerson, 2013). In a study of elementary and secondary students, it was found that intrinsic motivation had a positive correlation with achievement in both reading and mathematics (Gottfried, Fleming, & Gottfried, 2001; Guthrie, et al., 2013). The relationship between motivation and performance seems to be profoundly significant. Research suggests that motivation is a stronger predictor of student outcomes than intelligence or ability level. One study of students with equal ability demonstrated that motivation has a direct effect on academic behaviors (Dweck, 1986; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Sideridis & Scanlon, 2006). Building and sustaining reading motivation in students is paramount, given that reading motivation often begins to decline in students as early as the end of elementary school (Chapman & Tunmer, 1997; De Neaghel, et al., 2012; Guthrie & Davis, 2003; Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006; Van Elsäcker & Verhoeven, 2003). In a study examining elementary school students, 5th grade students were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy and overall motivation in comparison with younger students (Lee & Zentall, 2012).
Increasing reading motivation is especially critical in relation to lower performing students. When students do not have adequate reading skills to make meaning of text, their motivation to read considerably declines (Melekoglu, & Wilkerson, 2013; Morgan and Fuchs, 2007; Pitcher et al., 2007; Strommen and Mates, 2004). Research suggests that when individuals encounter frequent failure, their motivation to read shifts from an intrinsic to extrinsic orientation; a change that is associated...

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