The Effect Temperature And Concentration Have On A Reaction

2909 words - 12 pages

The Effect Temperature and Concentration Have on a Reaction We must produce a piece of coursework investigating the rates of
reaction, and the effect different changes have on them. The rate of
reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of
a product during a chemical reaction. It is measured by dividing 1 by
the time taken for the reaction to take place. There is five factors
which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory
of reacting particles: temperature, concentration (of solution),
pressure (in gases), surface are (of solid reactants), and catalysts.
I have chosen to investigate the effect temperature and concentration
have on a reaction. This is because they are the most practical to
investigate - it would take longer to prepare a solid in powdered and
unpowdered form, and it is difficult to get accurate readings due to
the inevitabilities of human errors, and as gas is mostly colourless
it is difficult to gauge a reaction changing the pressure, and if a
substance is added to give the gas colour, it may influence the
outcome of the experiment. Similarly the use of a catalyst complicates
things, and if used incorrectly could alter the outcome of the

Aim: -

To see the effects of a change in temperature and concentration on the
rate of a reaction. The reaction that will be used is:

Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid
Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq)

Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur Dioxide +
2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + SO2 (g) +

S (s)
Two series of experiments will be carried out - one changing the
temperature (while everything else remains constant) and one varying
the concentration (while keeping everything else constant). Both the
sodium thiosulphate and the Hydrochloric acid are soluble in water, so
the concentration of either can be changed. However I have chosen to
vary the sodium thiosulphate as it is available in larger amounts, and
various concentrations are prepared. When the temperature is constant
room temperature will be used as the temperature as it more practical
and will not need to be monitored. When the temperature is being
varied a water bath will be used to heat up the acid and thiosulphate
to the necessary temperature.

I decided which temperatures and concentrations to use during my
preliminary series of experiments -

1 mol/dm3 of HCl (acid concentration will be fixed)

10-35g/dm3 of sodium thiosulphate (all of these concentrations will be
tested in turn going up in steps of 5g/dm3)
20-70ºC temperature (all of these temperatures will be used going up
in steps of 10ºC)

Concentrations of 5, and 40 g/dm3 of thiosulphate were available to me
but my preliminary work showed that the 5 g/dm3 and 40g/dm3...

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