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The Effect Of Smaller Needle Diameters In Reducing Pain During Immunizations In The Pediatric Population

1960 words - 8 pages

The study will be conducted at only one location and may be limited in its size this will be discussed in the description of the setting. Future research may be initiated from this study and a larger sample may be used that would have a larger impact on the pediatric population. The following topics will be discussed in this chapter and how they will impact the study:
Design selection and Justification
Independent, Dependent, and Extraneous Variables
Description of the setting
Sample plan
Tools, Validity, and Reliability
Discussion of Procedure, Human Rights, and IRB
Data Analysis

Design Selection and Justification
Randomized experiment with random selection of sample. The selection is random because it will be any 10 to 17 year old male or female who comes into the clinic for their HPV immunization and once informed consent is obtained, will be allow participation into the study. The selection will need to be patients that are not having any flu-like symptoms or muscle pain.
Independent, Dependent, and Extraneous Variables
The independent variable is defined by the use of different diameter needles 25 gauge 1 inch needles or 23 gauge 1 inch needles. The dependent variable is defined by the pain level caused by the different size diameter needles. The extraneous variables that may arise in the study may be if a patient has muscle pain in his or her upper arms and does not mention this before the immunization being administrated. The extraneous variable may be controlled by having the patient fill out the prequalification questioner and if they answer yes to any of the questions on the screening, this will disqualify them from participating in the study. Another extraneous variable that may arise during the study is if the patient needs multiple immunizations. The age group that will participate in the study normally only needs two immunizations at this age; Tdap and HPV. If another immunization is administrated in the same arm as the HPV this could impact the pain levels or localized reaction.
Description of the Setting
The study will be conducted at only one site. This site is a primary care clinic located in a low income area for at risk children. Patients are seen for well child care visits and sick visits. Patient’s that are seen at the clinic are between the ages of newborn up until their 18th birthday. The facility has two providers, at times two physicians or a physician and a nurse practitioner. The facility has one triage room and six exam rooms. There is one case manager, three front office staff, and one manager. A community educator is available three times a week. Each provider has their own medical assistant to administer immunizations and procedures not done by licensed personnel. A physician or nurse practitioner exams the patient during their well child visit and then orders the immunizations the patient will need. Once the order is up on the chart, the medical assistant then processes and administrates the...

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