Growing and developing to a ripe old age is the dream of many people. They want to live to see many changes in the world and their family lineage growing and enjoy the benefits that come with the old age. There are many people who have lived up to this dream inspiring others to get there as well. During the process of aging, there are many changes experienced within the body. In fact, most of the organs, body parts if not all change to some extent. These changes usually compromise the function of the organs leading to insufficient function, which could lead to pathological effects and later failure leading to death (Partridge, 2009). Changes in the various organ systems are discussed hereafter.
The Cardiovascular system
This system is comprised of the heart, the arteries, veins and capillaries. It is important for the pumping and distribution of oxygenated blood to other parts of the body and the collection point for the deoxygenated blood from other parts of the body. The tissues of the heart which are usually tender start to stiffen. There is less energy from the mitochondria which is the powerhouse of energy production in the body. This leads to compromise in the structure of individual cells and on the tissues as well. The tissues of the heart start to stiffen, and the entire muscle of the heart stiffens. The healthy muscle tissue of the heart is replaced by a stiff connective tissue which leads to stiffening of the valves. Elasticity of the heat muscle is compromised, and they cannot contact and relax as they were years back (Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fields, 2009).
These changes have an effect on the function and output of the heart. Researchers noted that the output if a seventy-year-old person was about three, and half liters compared to over four liters in a twenty-year-old. This would mean that the amount of blood oxygenated and distributed is less and therefore, other organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients. In addition to that, the excess fats in the body are stored around the heart and the veins. Presence of fats in the blood vessels usually creates a high pressure when the blood is being pumped. This leads to high blood pressure or hypertension, which is quite common among older people. Hypertension may cause a heart attack which could be fatal. In fact, there are many old people who die from this condition (North and Sinclair, 2012).
The endocrine system is one of the most important in the body function regulation. This system is made of organs and tissues that are responsible for the production of various hormones. Endocrine system changes in several ways with advancement in age. One, the target organs of the hormones produced becomes less sensitive. This makes them to respond slowly or not respond at all to the hormone produced. Second, the levels of the hormones produced increases or decreases. For example, the level of insulin in blood increases, especially after the age of fifty years from 6...