The Effects Of Differing Response Force Requirement In Signaled Shock Avoidance

1993 words - 8 pages

Previous research have demonstrated that avoidance responding is influenced by shock intensity and duration (Leander, 1973; de Souza et al., 1984; Badia et al., 1973). Powell (1970) investigated the effect of two shock intensities in single and multiple avoidance schedules and found that the higher shock intensity was generally more effective in producing avoidance responding. Leander (1973) investigated the effects of shock intensity and duration on free-operant avoidance. The results indicated that shock intensity and shock duration combine in a multiplicative fashion to determine the avoidance performance. The relation between shock intensity and shock duration suggested ...view middle of the document...

, 1973; Harsh & Badia, 1975). Harsh and Badia (1975) found that strength of preference for signaled over unsignalled depended on shock intensity. At the lowest shock-intensity values for each subject (0.15 mA, 0.20 mA, or 0.3 mA), the amount of time spent in the signaled shock schedule remained near baseline levels. At higher intensity values such as 1.0 mA or 3.0 mA, however, subjects were spending most of each session under the signaled schedule (Harsh & Badia, 1975). Duration of shock was also a dimension of shock that predicted preference of signaled shock schedules over unsignalled. When given the choice between signaled or unsignalled shock, there was a preference for signaled shock schedules. There was a trend of preference towards longer or stronger signaled shock over shorter or weaker unsignalled shock (Badia et al., 1973). Badia et al. (1973) demonstrated that subjects chose signaled shock four (2.0 sec) to nine times (4.5 sec) longer than unsignalled shock (0.5 sec). This further suggests that signals associated with more intense and long-duration shock can predict stimulus control of avoidance responding. However, there are other factors influencing stimulus control of avoidance responding. The effectiveness of avoidance signals are predicted by the signal’s duration and sensory modality (Gilbert, 1971). Gilbert (1971) found that avoidance signals that persisted were more effective than signals that were brief at the beginning of warning period; and auditory signals predominated control of avoidance responding over visual signals. The duration of the warning period is consistent with findings from de Morales and Todorov (1977) which found that there is a direct relationship between response latency and the duration of a warning signal.
When unavoidable, the punishing effects of shock resulted in attack such as biting and escape-avoidance (Azrin et al., 1967; Pear et al., 1972; Ulrich & Azrin, 1962). This aggressive responding, whether elicited or operant, involves physical effort. However, how comparable is it to the effort to avoid shock? Miller (1968) investigated the role of response force on avoidance rate in humans. Force was manipulated with vocal requirement set at 80db, 95db, and 110db to avoid counter losses. The results of this experiment suggested that high response force requirements affected avoidance responding similar to high response force requirements on positively reinforced responding (Miller, 1968). In other words, high response force requirements decreased avoidance responding. These results are consistent with results from Alling and Polling (1995). Alling and Polling (1995) investigated the effects of differing response-force requirements on fixed-ratio responding. Results indicated that high response force requirements decreased response rates regardless of where in the ratio force requirement was increased; as the number of responses required to produce a reinforcer increased, the postreinforcement pause...

Find Another Essay On The Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirement in Signaled Shock Avoidance

Differing Depicitons of Love in Modern Film

773 words - 4 pages . Water for Elephants holds the notion love at first sight is essential and should be acted upon regardless of the circumstances because, hey it’s love. Marlena and Jacob seems to be drawn in, they offer their hearts to each other, hoping the other does not break it. However, the obstacle for them is August, who is controlling and hurtful towards Marlena. This is a typical example of an outside force affecting ones relationship. Hence, the love

Requirement of Reform of the Church in Europe During 15th and 16th Centuries

1910 words - 8 pages Requirement of Reform of the Church in Europe During 15th and 16th Centuries The Church in Europe required reform at the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century for a number of reasons. The main reason being the behaviour of the papacy and their priorities which were no longer the welfare of the Church. There were other factors which contributed to the development of the Reformation in

Differing Methods of Approaching the Marijuana Debate

1374 words - 5 pages course. The effects of government intervention on supply and demand can be an obscure topic, but using real world examples can clarify the subject. Finally, it gives us one way that we can show our students how to address more controversial issues with economic logic.” (Tedeschi, 81). The strong pro-marijuana stance that Drum takes in his work goes to show that his piece is clearly non-academic, while Tedeschi’s piece that lacks any opinion on the

Culture Shock in The American Expatriate Community

1630 words - 7 pages Dealing with Culture Shock in American Expatriate Community The American expatriate community is the population of all Americans that are temporarily or permanently living outside the borders of the United States. These overseas-Americans, numbering over 6.32 million strong (Association for American Residents Overseas), confront many issues when they leave their homeland and transition to a new life in a foreign country. These issues can

Cultural Shock in Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard

2297 words - 9 pages Cultural Shock in Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard     Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard projects the cultural conflict of the turn of the twentieth century of Russia. With a historical allusion, Chekhov exhibited the changing Russia with "slice of life" in his play. The Cherry Orchard is not only a depiction of Russian life but also an understatement of changing traditional value. Cultural conflict itself is an abstraction. To explain it, it

"The Shock of the New Anything Goes"

1747 words - 7 pages "The Shock of the New Anything Goes"Pablo Picasso and Damien Hirst are two notable artists who are exemplars of artists who display a significant departure from the use of traditional materials in creating artworks. They both challenged the concepts of artistic acceptance in existence at their time.Born in 1881, Pablo Ruiz Picasso is one of the most well known artists in the world. He is a Spanish painter, ceramicist, and stage designer, and the

The Differing Portrayals of Anthony and Cleopatra in William Shakespeare's Play

1971 words - 8 pages The Differing Portrayals of Anthony and Cleopatra in William Shakespeare's Play Act one of Anthony and Cleopatra deals immediately with the different personalities of Anthony and Cleopatra. It shows the pressure of the outside world on their relationship. By the end of the act you are left unsure as to who is the more treacherous, who is more loving and are given different perspectives of Anthony and Cleopatra. At a

Differing Perspectives of Women in The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

1222 words - 5 pages The Hidden Meaning Before the 20th century, women were discriminated against by men in their jobs and freedom. Both men and women had different opinions and perspectives toward women in society during the 19th century. “The Yellow Wallpaper” published in 1892 by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a prominent American feminist, wrote short stories from a woman’s perspective. The narrator of the “The Yellow Wallpaper” begins the story by describing the

Effects of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of Force Events

933 words - 4 pages be less harmful in use of force situations, other factors must be considered such as pre-existing health conditions and drug related factors. If an individual who suffers from asthma was to inhale the harmful toxins released in OC or pepper spray, he or she could become severely ill or possible even die. A review of police and medical records of suspects exposed to a CED shock during a 2-year period found that less than 1% received moderate

A Psychological Approach of Force in “The Use of Force” by William Carlos Williams

836 words - 4 pages not only he is angry; he is also enjoying the fight. “I had to smile to myself. After all, I had already fallen in love with the savage brat, the parents were contemptible to me.” (628-631) He knows the parents are poor and can’t afford a hospital so, they will agree to force open their daughter mouth. He takes advantage of the situation. It is not what doctors do. He is not just enjoying the fight of the child; I believe he loves it. The

The Use of Force

939 words - 4 pages Depression through his short story “The Use of Force”. William Carlos Williams during his lifetime (1883-1963) prospered not only in the medical field as a doctor for over 40 years, but also became a well known author and poet. He is known for his unique way of writing and for his strong imagist, anti-romanticist way of thinking. His writing style was “uncluttered” and had “functional phrasing”. Although he was of foreign decent, he took great pride in

Similar Essays

The Effects Of Shell Shock On Veterans

808 words - 4 pages Today, many veterans of war are still experiencing the horrific events that they encountered during combat. This is not just a case of veterans remembering a specific event, rather it is a far more serious case of them actually reliving the event, or having a “flashback” of them being in a certain situation. When service-members started showing signs of this, it was called in the early stages of research, “Shell shock.” Many veterans from

The Differing Legacies Of Rulers In Antiogne

674 words - 3 pages her dead brother Polynices. Creon choses to execute Antigone for attempting to bury her brother. Antigone’s legacy can go on because she has the courage to go against Creon. Antigone defies Creon by choosing to sacrifice herself for Polynices' honor. Creon’s actions in result to Antigone’s is the main reason his legacy won't be commemorated. First off, Creon was forgotten as a result of his choice to execute Antigone. The punishment given

"Students Should Not Be Forced To Do Community Service" This Essay Explains The Negative Effects Of Forcing Students To Fulfill A Community Service Requirement In High School

623 words - 2 pages Do you think you would have the time and effort to add a forced 75 hours of community service into your life? Well, the Massachusetts legislature is considering adding this idea as a requirement to graduate high school! To those already with the high stakes of MCAS and 130 credits worth of courses to pass, students may increase the dropout rate. This requirement may keep many students back from graduating, could lessen the quality of service

Evaluation Of Shock Therapy In The Bolivian Economy

939 words - 4 pages resource (a gift of nature) and 'Shock Therapy' lead to an increase in oil prices and oil was sold under government control in order to decrease debt. This set up the economy for international trade (engaging in the exchange, purchase, barter, or sale of goods) which resulted in privatization (conversion of a state run company to a public limited company often accompanied a sale of its shares to the public). Bolivia slowly adopted the free market