The Effects of Industrialization on Society
The Industrial Revolution changed society from an agriculture based community into a thriving urban city through many interrelated changes. One of the most important changes was the quantity and rate of products produced to meet the rising demand. Large industrial factories increased efficiency and productivity, which caused a shift in economy. Karl Marx’s believed that the new changes overturned established economies as well as society. He voiced his view through the Communist Manifesto to show people the negative effect industrialization was having on society.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, society and economics were largely determined by land and agriculture. Growth was slow and people relied on traditional means to survive. The majority of societies were farmers who raised crops and animals for a living. However, in the eighteenth century, the population exploded and grew at a significant rate. The four primary factors behind this growth are: a decline in death rate, an increase in the birth rate, the virtual elimination of plagues, and an increase in the availability of food [[i]]. This burst of population created an excessive amount of workers, who were not needed in the agriculture society. The need for workers in agriculture decreased due to the advances in technology and tools. A large number of people as well as perspective farmers had to find jobs elsewhere. This is one of the important factors in the shift of the population from rural areas to the more urban cities.
The introduction of machinery initiated the Industrial Revolution making factories an important way of life. The machinery in factories used the power from moving water as their main source, but a new invention changed all that. The invention of the steam engine was one of the most important technical inventions of the Industrial Revolution ([ii]).
The steam engine not only allowed factories to move away from the waterfront, but also was used as a pump for mines, ships, and locomotives. The steam engine was first used to raise large quantities of coal and iron from underground mines. The abundance of coal and iron meant that industrialization could spread faster ([iii]). When the steam engine was moved into boats, it made a major impact on society and culture. People could now travel around the world more quickly, seeing other cultures and places and also introducing new cultures and customs to society. Industry greatly profited from the invention of the steam engine because it allowed companies to expand their market and sell to more people. Traveling by water became more efficient, so people wanted to increase accessibility of traveling by water, which led to the canalization of rivers.
Canals were one of the many results of the invention of the steam engine because of its placement on boats. Canals were artificial...