Nuclear fallout is the residue and byproducts of a nuclear bomb explosion or in the case of Chernobyl, a nuclear accident. The Chernobyl accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at 1:23 a.m. just outside of Kiev, Ukraine. The nuclear reaction occurred because the reactor complex was made up of four reactors and the reactor design was flawed. Also, some of the operating personnel were improperly trained. A nuclear reaction is a change in the identity or the characteristics of an atomic nucleus. The reactors were used for manufacturing plutonium for nuclear bombs as well as producing energy for Chernobyl. Plutonium is formed by nuclear reactor or apparatuses that can make fissile material to undergo a controlled, self-sustaining nuclear reaction. Uranium is used in the reactors to make Plutonium. Different isotopes of Uranium go through transmutation, a form change, to create different compounds. According to the picture below Uranium-235 can be used for fission products. Fission is the dividing of something in to two or more parts. Uranium-235, an unstable isotope, is also a critical isotope, which means it is capable of sustaining a chain reaction. A chain reaction is one that interacts with neutrons. Unstable isotopes are radioactive and emit ionizing radiation caused by spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei. The isotope Uranium-238 is used to create Plutonium. Uranium-238 is stable, which means that it has no way to decay.
The nuclear fallout of Chernobyl is a local and global issue because radioactive debris has been found at the site of the incident as well as in large parts of Europe including Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Fallout from Chernobyl has also been found in the northern parts of Asia. Despite the fact that Chernobyl had minor positives such as medical advances and animals escape from human interaction, the effects of this nuclear disaster were overwhelming devastating and negative. Many health and environmental issues in Kiev, Ukraine can be linked back to the Chernobyl accident.
Science was used to calculate the aftermath of Chernobyl by taking measurements in order to find the presence and amount of radioactive materials and fallout. This can be done by measuring contaminated water, as well radiation levels of affected areas. Instruments can be used to depict these levels. Another way to measure radiation levels is to go into affected towns and give the populations health screens and test their radiation levels by taking blood and saliva samples. Blood can be taken and analyzed for two measures of radiation. As stated earlier, radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization. “There are two measures of radiation exposure. The first, which must be completed within 36 hours of exposure, looks for the number of breaks in double strands of DNA. The second test searches blood cells for micronuclei composed of...