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The Empires Of Asia Essay

1384 words - 6 pages

Empires of AsiaSection 1: Muslim Empires- The Ottoman Empire lasted from about 1300 to 1922. The Ottomans were named after Osman I, a Turkish chieftain who founded a state in Anatolia, now Turkey, in the late 1200's.- The Ottomans claimed to be the champions of Sunni Islam. In 1453, Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.- The city, now called Istanbul, became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.- By 1600, the Ottoman Empire formed a crescent around the Mediterranean extending from Hungary in eastern Europe through Palestine and Egypt to Algeria in North Africa. Under the reign of Sultan Suleyman I in the 1500's, the Muslim world achieved its greatest level of unity since the time of the Abbasids.- Under the Ottomans, many cultures maintained their identities within Muslim society.- The Ottoman sultans were Turkish, but the generals, admirals, and administrators of the Ottoman Empire came from throughout the Mediterranean world. Many Ottoman aristocrats were skilled in the arts, languages, and literature, and they set the standard for culture in the Muslim world.- Many Ottoman officials came from Christian families. Each year, recruiting teams collected boys from eastern Europe.- The youths were taken to Istanbul, converted to Islam, and educated. Legally, they became slaves of the sultan and were supposed to be loyal only to him.- The most physically active boys became "Men of the Sword" and served in the Janissary Corps, a special division of infantry that formed the core of the Ottoman army.- The more scholarly students became "Men of the Pen" and served in administrative posts, from which they could rise to the rank of grand vizier, the highest Ottoman official after the sultan.- Mughal Empire, also called the Mogul Empire, ruled most of India in the 1500's and 1600's.- Life in Mughal India set a standard of magnificence for its region of Asia, and the empire had order and stability.- The centralized government of the empire provided a model for later rulers of India. A distinctive culture developed that blended Persian and Indian elements, and the Persian language became widely used.- Babur, a prince from central Asia, founded the Mughal Empire in 1526. His grandson Akbar established its governmental structure.- Akbar, who ruled from 1556 to 1605, controlled most of what are now north and central India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Jahangir, Akbar's son, ruled from 1605 to 1627 and was a patron of Persian culture. His son Shah Jahan reigned from 1628 to 1658.- He encouraged architecture and built the famous Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife. Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb took the throne from his father in 1658. Aurangzeb attempted to expand the empire and to control rebellions within it.- The Mughal emperors were Muslims who ruled a largely Hindu nation.- Under Akbar, some Hindu warriors served as Mughal generals and governors.- Other Hindus were administrators and clerks. Later, Aurangzeb...

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