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The Effect Of Temperature On The Rate Of An Enzyme Catalysed Reaction

1779 words - 7 pages

Aim: To find the effect of temperature on enzymes, using a potato as a catalyst. The source of catalase is in the potato cells.2H2O2 → O2 + H2OPlanning:Introduction: An Enzyme is any one of many specialised organic substances, composed of polymers of amino acids, that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of the many chemical reactions involved in the metabolism of living organismsEnzymes are classified into several broad categories, such as hydrolytic, oxidising, and reducing, depending on the type of reaction they control. Hydrolytic enzymes accelerate reactions in which a substance is broken down into simpler compounds through reaction with water molecules. Oxidising enzymes, known as oxidises, accelerate oxidation reactions; reducing enzymes speed up reduction reactions, in which oxygen is removed. Many other enzymes catalyse other types of reactions.Individual enzymes are named by adding 'ASE' to the name of the substrate with which they react. The enzyme that controls urea decomposition is called urease; those that control protein hydrolyses are known as proteinases. However, some enzymes, such as the proteinases trypsin and pepsin, retain the names used before this nomenclature was adoptedEnzymes are large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. In their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. Enzyme and substrate fail to bind if their shapes do not match exactly. This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction. When the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrateProperties of Enzymesenzymes are typical catalysts: they are capable of increasing the rate of reaction without being consumed in the process.Some enzymes, such as pepsin and trypsin, which bring about the digestion of meat, control many different reactions, whereas others, such as urease, are extremely specific and may accelerate only one reaction. Still others release energy to make the heart beat and the lungs expand and contract. Many facilitate the conversion of sugar and foods into the various substances the body requires for tissue-building, the replacement of blood cells, and the release of chemical energy to move muscles.enzymes are very efficient. Small quantities of an enzyme can work at low temperatures what would require violent reagents and high temperatures in ordinary chemical reactions.MethodI will be looking at the effect of catalase (in potatoes) on Hydrogen Peroxide to find the effect of temperature on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. Oxygen gas will be produced therefore we can measure the volume of oxygen produced, and compare the rate which is produced at different temperatures to see the effect that changing temperature has on the rate of reaction. I...

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